Double-blind crossover comparison of enoximone and placebo in patients with congestive heart failure.Circulation 1987; 76(6):1307-11Circ
The efficacy of oral enoximone, a new positive inotropic and vasodilator agent, was assessed in 12 patients with chronic congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II or III) in a double-blind randomized crossover comparison with placebo. Duration of each treatment was 6 weeks and the dose of enoximone was 150 mg tid. Efficacy was assessed by exercise tolerance, symptoms, radionuclide angiography for ejection fraction at rest and during exercise, and Holter monitoring. Two patients were withdrawn before completion of the study, one with pulmonary edema after 1 week on placebo and the other for noncompliance with enoximone therapy. Symptom-limited exercise capacity improved with enoximone by 30% and 43% (p less than .01) compared with baseline after 2 and 6 weeks treatment, respectively. Ejection fraction improved at rest (p less than .02) with enoximone but not with placebo. No change was found during exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure remained unaltered. During treatment with enoximone symptoms of exertional dyspnea and fatigue were improved and NYHA class decreased by at least one class for every patient. Holter monitoring revealed an overall increase (NS) in ectopic activity during enoximone therapy. There were no serious adverse effects and laboratory values did not change significantly. The addition of enoximone to the existing therapy of patients with moderately severe congestive heart failure provided clear and sustained subjective and objective benefit when compared with placebo.