Hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults aged ≥ 18 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity, United States, 2015.Vaccine. 2018 04 25; 36(18):2471-2479.V
Persons from the United States who travel to developing countries are at substantial risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended for adults at increased risk for infection, including travelers to high or intermediate hepatitis B endemic countries.
To assess hepatitis B vaccination coverage among adults ≥ 18 years traveling to a country of high or intermediate endemicity from the United States.
Data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed to determine hepatitis B vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) and series completion (≥3 doses) among persons aged ≥ 18 years who reported traveling to a country of high or intermediate hepatitis B endemicity. Multivariable logistic regression and predictive marginal analyses were conducted to identify factors independently associated with hepatitis B vaccination.
In 2015, hepatitis B vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) among adults aged ≥ 18 years who reported traveling to high or intermediate hepatitis B endemic countries was 38.6%, significantly higher compared with 25.9% among non-travelers. Series completion (≥3 doses) was 31.7% and 21.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). On multivariable analysis among all respondents, travel status was significantly associated with hepatitis B vaccination coverage and series completion. Other characteristics independently associated with vaccination (≥1 dose, and ≥ 3 doses) among travelers included age, race/ethnicity, educational level, duration of U.S. residence, number of physician contacts in the past year, status of ever being tested for HIV, and healthcare personnel status.
Although travel to a country of high or intermediate hepatitis B endemicity was associated with higher likelihood of hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B vaccination coverage was low among adult travelers to these areas. Healthcare providers should ask their patients about travel plans and recommend and offer travel related vaccinations to their patients or refer them to alternate sites for vaccination.