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Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages.

Abstract

Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and high intakes of milk/dairy are not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Earlier evidence of a significant increase in the risk of colorectal cancer from consumption of red and particularly processed meat has been reinforced by the inclusion of more recent studies. It is essential that nutrition and health-related functionality of foods are included in evaluations of sustainable food production.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health,University of Reading,Reading RG6 6AR,UK.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Calcium, Dietary
    Cattle
    Chronic Disease
    Dairy Products
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Diet
    Female
    Health Status
    Humans
    Meat
    Pregnancy
    Red Meat
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    29606182

    Citation

    Givens, D I.. "Review: Dairy Foods, Red Meat and Processed Meat in the Diet: Implications for Health at Key Life Stages." Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, vol. 12, no. 8, 2018, pp. 1709-1721.
    Givens DI. Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages. Animal. 2018;12(8):1709-1721.
    Givens, D. I. (2018). Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages. Animal : an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, 12(8), pp. 1709-1721. doi:10.1017/S1751731118000642.
    Givens DI. Review: Dairy Foods, Red Meat and Processed Meat in the Diet: Implications for Health at Key Life Stages. Animal. 2018;12(8):1709-1721. PubMed PMID: 29606182.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Review: Dairy foods, red meat and processed meat in the diet: implications for health at key life stages. A1 - Givens,D I, Y1 - 2018/04/02/ PY - 2018/4/3/pubmed PY - 2019/3/16/medline PY - 2018/4/3/entrez KW - cancer KW - cardiometabolic diseases KW - dairy products KW - milk KW - red and processed meat SP - 1709 EP - 1721 JF - Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience JO - Animal VL - 12 IS - 8 N2 - Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate. Many young and pre-menopausal women have considerably sub-optimal intakes of iron which are likely to be associated with reduced consumption of red meat. A clear concern is the low intakes of calcium especially as a high proportion of the population is of sub-optimal vitamin D status. This may already have had serious consequences in terms of bone development which may not be apparent until later life, particularly in post-menopausal women. This review aims to examine the role of dairy foods and red meat at key life stages in terms of their ability to reduce or increase chronic disease risk. It is clear that milk and dairy foods are key sources of important nutrients such as calcium and iodine and the concentration of some key nutrients, notably iodine can be influenced by the method of primary milk production, in particular, the iodine intake of the dairy cow. Recent meta-analyses show no evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular diseases from high consumption of milk and dairy foods but increasing evidence of a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes associated with fermented dairy foods, yoghurt in particular. The recently updated reports from the World Cancer Research Fund International/American Institute for Cancer Research on the associations between dairy foods, red meat and processed meat and various cancers provide further confidence that total dairy products and milk, are associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer and high intakes of milk/dairy are not associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Earlier evidence of a significant increase in the risk of colorectal cancer from consumption of red and particularly processed meat has been reinforced by the inclusion of more recent studies. It is essential that nutrition and health-related functionality of foods are included in evaluations of sustainable food production. SN - 1751-732X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29606182/Review:_Dairy_foods_red_meat_and_processed_meat_in_the_diet:_implications_for_health_at_key_life_stages_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1751731118000642/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -