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[Epidemiological characteristics and molecular typing of typhoid and paratyphoid in China, 2009-2013].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Mar 10; 39(3):337-341.ZL

Abstract

Objective:

To understand the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid in China from 2009 to 2013, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of typhoid and paratyphoid, the development and improvement of surveillance strategies.

Methods:

Epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid, and related public health emergencies in China during 2009-2013. Pathogen isolation and culture, serologic test were conducted for the typhoid and paratyphoid cases from 13 national surveillance sites. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for the molecular typing of these isolates.

Results:

The average incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid in China during this period was 1.03/100 000. The reported case number and incidence decreased with year. The provinces reporting high case numbers were Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Guangdong and Xinjiang. The incidence of age group 0-4 years was highest. The proportion of farmers and children outside child care settings showed an increasing tendency over time. The annual incidence peak was during July-August. Twenty five outbreaks occurred during 2009-2013. The results of pathogen isolation and culture showed that the positive rate was 3.00% (940/31 322), among the positive isolates, the proportion of Salmonella paratyphi A accounted for higher proportion (68.19%, 641/940) compared with Salmonella typhi (31.60%, 297/940). The drug resistances of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi varied, but their resistances to nalidixic acid were highest (50.22% and 85.33%) respectively. A certain amount of Salmonella typhi isolates showed the resistance to the 3rd generation cephalosporins. PFGE analysis showed divergent patterns of Salmonella typhi compared with limited patterns of Salmonella paratyphi A.

Conclusion:

The epidemic level of typhoid and paratyphoid in China was relatively low, but the outbreak occurred occasionally. It is necessary to enhance the laboratory-based surveillance, particularly the capability of etiological diagnosis, outbreak investigation, response and antibiotic resistance monitoring, and conduct risk factor investigation in provinces with high incidences in recent years.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Infectious Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Infectious Disease Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.Department of Diarrheal Disease, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

chi

PubMed ID

29609250

Citation

Cao, Y, et al. "[Epidemiological Characteristics and Molecular Typing of Typhoid and Paratyphoid in China, 2009-2013]." Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi = Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi, vol. 39, no. 3, 2018, pp. 337-341.
Cao Y, Han YY, Liu FF, et al. [Epidemiological characteristics and molecular typing of typhoid and paratyphoid in China, 2009-2013]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2018;39(3):337-341.
Cao, Y., Han, Y. Y., Liu, F. F., Liao, Q. H., Li, J., Diao, B. W., Fan, F. X., Kan, B., & Yan, M. Y. (2018). [Epidemiological characteristics and molecular typing of typhoid and paratyphoid in China, 2009-2013]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi = Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi, 39(3), 337-341. https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2018.03.017
Cao Y, et al. [Epidemiological Characteristics and Molecular Typing of Typhoid and Paratyphoid in China, 2009-2013]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Mar 10;39(3):337-341. PubMed PMID: 29609250.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Epidemiological characteristics and molecular typing of typhoid and paratyphoid in China, 2009-2013]. AU - Cao,Y, AU - Han,Y Y, AU - Liu,F F, AU - Liao,Q H, AU - Li,J, AU - Diao,B W, AU - Fan,F X, AU - Kan,B, AU - Yan,M Y, PY - 2018/4/3/entrez PY - 2018/4/4/pubmed PY - 2018/6/16/medline KW - Antibiotic susceptibility KW - Epidemiological characteristics KW - Paratyphoid fever KW - Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis KW - Typhoid fever SP - 337 EP - 341 JF - Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi JO - Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi VL - 39 IS - 3 N2 - Objective: To understand the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of typhoid and paratyphoid in China from 2009 to 2013, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of typhoid and paratyphoid, the development and improvement of surveillance strategies. Methods: Epidemiological analysis was conducted on the incidence data of typhoid and paratyphoid, and related public health emergencies in China during 2009-2013. Pathogen isolation and culture, serologic test were conducted for the typhoid and paratyphoid cases from 13 national surveillance sites. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for the molecular typing of these isolates. Results: The average incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid in China during this period was 1.03/100 000. The reported case number and incidence decreased with year. The provinces reporting high case numbers were Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Zhejiang, Guangdong and Xinjiang. The incidence of age group 0-4 years was highest. The proportion of farmers and children outside child care settings showed an increasing tendency over time. The annual incidence peak was during July-August. Twenty five outbreaks occurred during 2009-2013. The results of pathogen isolation and culture showed that the positive rate was 3.00% (940/31 322), among the positive isolates, the proportion of Salmonella paratyphi A accounted for higher proportion (68.19%, 641/940) compared with Salmonella typhi (31.60%, 297/940). The drug resistances of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi varied, but their resistances to nalidixic acid were highest (50.22% and 85.33%) respectively. A certain amount of Salmonella typhi isolates showed the resistance to the 3rd generation cephalosporins. PFGE analysis showed divergent patterns of Salmonella typhi compared with limited patterns of Salmonella paratyphi A. Conclusion: The epidemic level of typhoid and paratyphoid in China was relatively low, but the outbreak occurred occasionally. It is necessary to enhance the laboratory-based surveillance, particularly the capability of etiological diagnosis, outbreak investigation, response and antibiotic resistance monitoring, and conduct risk factor investigation in provinces with high incidences in recent years. SN - 0254-6450 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29609250/[Epidemiological_characteristics_and_molecular_typing_of_typhoid_and_paratyphoid_in_China_2009_2013]_ L2 - http://journal.yiigle.com/LinkIn.do?linkin_type=pubmed&issn=0254-6450&year=2018&vol=39&issue=3&fpage=337 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -