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Theory of mind and the Ultimatum Game in healthy adult aging.
Exp Aging Res. 2018 May-Jun; 44(3):246-257.EA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The Ultimatum Game assesses decision-making involved in cooperative interactions with others. However, little is known about the role that the ability to understand other people's intentions plays in these interactions.

METHODS

This study examined performance on the Ultimatum Game and theory of mind (ToM) tasks in younger and older adults.

RESULTS

Age differences were not found on the ToM tasks, and a lack of variability in performance prevented analyses of the relationships between performance on the Ultimatum Game and ToM. However, age differences were found on the Ultimatum Game, with older adults accepting more unfair offers. Yet, the two age groups did not differ in their appreciation of fairness, as assessed using subjective fairness ratings.

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that older adults are more rational in their behavior, accepting unfair offers even when they know they are unfair, as it is in their self-interest to accept small monetary values rather than nothing at all.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology and Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology , University of Edinburgh , UK.a Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology and Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology , University of Edinburgh , UK.a Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology and Human Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology , University of Edinburgh , UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29611796

Citation

Girardi, Alessandra, et al. "Theory of Mind and the Ultimatum Game in Healthy Adult Aging." Experimental Aging Research, vol. 44, no. 3, 2018, pp. 246-257.
Girardi A, Sala SD, MacPherson SE. Theory of mind and the Ultimatum Game in healthy adult aging. Exp Aging Res. 2018;44(3):246-257.
Girardi, A., Sala, S. D., & MacPherson, S. E. (2018). Theory of mind and the Ultimatum Game in healthy adult aging. Experimental Aging Research, 44(3), 246-257. https://doi.org/10.1080/0361073X.2018.1449590
Girardi A, Sala SD, MacPherson SE. Theory of Mind and the Ultimatum Game in Healthy Adult Aging. Exp Aging Res. 2018 May-Jun;44(3):246-257. PubMed PMID: 29611796.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Theory of mind and the Ultimatum Game in healthy adult aging. AU - Girardi,Alessandra, AU - Sala,Sergio Della, AU - MacPherson,Sarah E, PY - 2018/4/4/entrez PY - 2018/4/4/pubmed PY - 2019/1/3/medline SP - 246 EP - 257 JF - Experimental aging research JO - Exp Aging Res VL - 44 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The Ultimatum Game assesses decision-making involved in cooperative interactions with others. However, little is known about the role that the ability to understand other people's intentions plays in these interactions. METHODS: This study examined performance on the Ultimatum Game and theory of mind (ToM) tasks in younger and older adults. RESULTS: Age differences were not found on the ToM tasks, and a lack of variability in performance prevented analyses of the relationships between performance on the Ultimatum Game and ToM. However, age differences were found on the Ultimatum Game, with older adults accepting more unfair offers. Yet, the two age groups did not differ in their appreciation of fairness, as assessed using subjective fairness ratings. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that older adults are more rational in their behavior, accepting unfair offers even when they know they are unfair, as it is in their self-interest to accept small monetary values rather than nothing at all. SN - 1096-4657 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29611796/Theory_of_mind_and_the_Ultimatum_Game_in_healthy_adult_aging_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0361073X.2018.1449590 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -