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Who are the European youths willing to engage in radicalisation? A multidisciplinary review of their psychological and social profiles.
Eur Psychiatry. 2018 08; 52:1-14.EP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A new model of radicalisation has appeared in Western countries since the 2010s. Radical groups are smaller, less hierarchical and are mainly composed of young, homegrown individuals. The aim of this review is to decipher the profiles of the European adolescents and young adults who have embraced the cause of radical Islamism and to define the role of psychiatry in dealing with this issue.

METHODS

We performed a systematic search in several databases from January 2010 to July 2017 and reviewed the relevant studies that included European adolescents and/or young adults and presented empirical data.

RESULTS

In total, 22 qualitative and quantitative studies were reviewed from various fields and using different methodologies. Psychotic disorders are rare among radicalised youths. However, they show numerous risk factors common with adolescent psychopathologies. We develop a comprehensive three-level model to explain the phenomenon of radicalisation among young Europeans: (1) individual risk factors include psychological vulnerabilities such as early experiences of abandonment, perceived injustice and personal uncertainty; (2) micro-environmental risk factors include family dysfunction and friendships with radicalised individuals; (3) societal risk factors include geopolitical events and societal changes such as Durkheim's concept of anomie. Some systemic factors are also implicated as there is a specific encounter between recruiters and the individual. The former use sectarian techniques to isolate and dehumanise the latter and to offer him a new societal model.

CONCLUSION

There are many similarities between psychopathological manifestations of adolescence and mechanisms at stake during the radicalisation process. As a consequence, and despite the rarity of psychotic disorders, mental health professionals have a role to play in the treatment and understanding of radical engagement among European youth. Studies with empirical data are limited, and more research should be promoted (in particular in females and in non-Muslim communities) to better understand the phenomenon and to propose recommendations for prevention and treatment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Service de Psychiatrie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; ARTEMIS, Atelier de Recherche, Traitement et Médiation Interculturelle et Sociale, Paris, France; Laboratoire PCPP- EA 4056, Institut de Psychologie, Université Paris V René Descartes SPC, France. Electronic address: nicolas.campelo-rodriguez@aphp.fr.Service de Psychiatrie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.Laboratoire PCPP- EA 4056, Institut de Psychologie, Université Paris V René Descartes SPC, France.Service de Psychiatrie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; Institut des Systèmes Intelligents et de Robotiques, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.CMPPD, Conseil Départemental des Bouches-du-Rhône, 45 avenue du Prado, 13006, Marseille, France; Laboratoire de Santé Publique, EA3279, Aix Marseille Université, 27 bd Jean Moulin, 13005, Marseille, France, France; EA 7479, SPURBO, 22 avenue Camille Desmoulins, 29200, Brest, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29614388

Citation

Campelo, Nicolas, et al. "Who Are the European Youths Willing to Engage in Radicalisation? a Multidisciplinary Review of Their Psychological and Social Profiles." European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, vol. 52, 2018, pp. 1-14.
Campelo N, Oppetit A, Neau F, et al. Who are the European youths willing to engage in radicalisation? A multidisciplinary review of their psychological and social profiles. Eur Psychiatry. 2018;52:1-14.
Campelo, N., Oppetit, A., Neau, F., Cohen, D., & Bronsard, G. (2018). Who are the European youths willing to engage in radicalisation? A multidisciplinary review of their psychological and social profiles. European Psychiatry : the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 52, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2018.03.001
Campelo N, et al. Who Are the European Youths Willing to Engage in Radicalisation? a Multidisciplinary Review of Their Psychological and Social Profiles. Eur Psychiatry. 2018;52:1-14. PubMed PMID: 29614388.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Who are the European youths willing to engage in radicalisation? A multidisciplinary review of their psychological and social profiles. AU - Campelo,Nicolas, AU - Oppetit,Alice, AU - Neau,Françoise, AU - Cohen,David, AU - Bronsard,Guillaume, Y1 - 2018/03/31/ PY - 2018/01/11/received PY - 2018/02/24/revised PY - 2018/03/07/accepted PY - 2018/4/4/pubmed PY - 2019/3/21/medline PY - 2018/4/4/entrez KW - Adolescence KW - Radicalisation KW - Social context KW - Terrorism KW - Violent extremism SP - 1 EP - 14 JF - European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists JO - Eur. Psychiatry VL - 52 N2 - BACKGROUND: A new model of radicalisation has appeared in Western countries since the 2010s. Radical groups are smaller, less hierarchical and are mainly composed of young, homegrown individuals. The aim of this review is to decipher the profiles of the European adolescents and young adults who have embraced the cause of radical Islamism and to define the role of psychiatry in dealing with this issue. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in several databases from January 2010 to July 2017 and reviewed the relevant studies that included European adolescents and/or young adults and presented empirical data. RESULTS: In total, 22 qualitative and quantitative studies were reviewed from various fields and using different methodologies. Psychotic disorders are rare among radicalised youths. However, they show numerous risk factors common with adolescent psychopathologies. We develop a comprehensive three-level model to explain the phenomenon of radicalisation among young Europeans: (1) individual risk factors include psychological vulnerabilities such as early experiences of abandonment, perceived injustice and personal uncertainty; (2) micro-environmental risk factors include family dysfunction and friendships with radicalised individuals; (3) societal risk factors include geopolitical events and societal changes such as Durkheim's concept of anomie. Some systemic factors are also implicated as there is a specific encounter between recruiters and the individual. The former use sectarian techniques to isolate and dehumanise the latter and to offer him a new societal model. CONCLUSION: There are many similarities between psychopathological manifestations of adolescence and mechanisms at stake during the radicalisation process. As a consequence, and despite the rarity of psychotic disorders, mental health professionals have a role to play in the treatment and understanding of radical engagement among European youth. Studies with empirical data are limited, and more research should be promoted (in particular in females and in non-Muslim communities) to better understand the phenomenon and to propose recommendations for prevention and treatment. SN - 1778-3585 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29614388/Who_are_the_European_youths_willing_to_engage_in_radicalisation_A_multidisciplinary_review_of_their_psychological_and_social_profiles L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0924-9338(18)30070-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -