Impact of statin therapy on coronary plaque burden and composition assessed by coronary computed tomographic angiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018 08 01; 19(8):850-858.EH
To clarify the potential role of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in assessing the remodelling impact of statin therapy on plaque burden and compositions.
Methods and results
A systematic literature review and meta-analysis were conducted to examine the effect of statin therapy on different plaque volumes assessed by serial CCTA. Twelve studies were included with a mean (±standard deviation) follow-up period of 14.5 ± 9.5 months. Data on plaque volume were pooled using weighted mean difference method. Available data on a total of 199 intensive statin therapy receivers, 404 moderate statin therapy receivers and 189 controls (mean age = 62 ± 5 years, male gender = 78%) were meta-analysed. Intensive statin therapy reduced total plaque volume (TPV) by -20.87 [95% confidence interval (CI) -31.17, -10.56; P < 0.001] mm3, while moderate statin therapy reduced it by -1.67 (95% CI -9.99, 6.65; P = 0.69) mm3. In contrast TPV increased significantly in controls by 14.96 (95% CI 5.28, 24.64; P = 0.002) mm3. Percents of mean volume regression were -3.6% and -0.7% in intensive and moderate statin receivers, respectively, vs. +5.8% progression in controls. Statin therapy decreased non-calcified plaque volume by -7.62 (95% CI -17.38, 2.13; P = 0.124) mm3 and low attenuation plaque volume by -5.84 (95% CI -8.02, -3.66; P < 0.001) mm3. In statin therapy receivers, calcified plaque volume increased by 11.83 (95% CI 3.37, 20.29; P = 0.006) mm3 and calcium signal intensity increased by 21.99 (95% CI 9.2, 34.8; P < 0.001) Hounsfield units.
Initial studies demonstrated CCTA's possible role in evaluating the effect of statin therapy on plaque volume and composition. Further studies are warranted to delineate the mechanisms behind plaque changes.