Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India.
Health Educ Behav. 2018 10; 45(5):824-835.HE

Abstract

While traditional HIV prevention programs with female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India, have focused on reducing HIV transmission between FSWs and clients through increased condom use, these programs have not fully addressed the transmission risk between FSWs and their nonpaying intimate partners (IPs). Condom use is infrequent and violence is recurrent in these relationships: Furthermore, there is little evidence on the precise nature of FSW-IP relationships. Our study addresses this knowledge gap to inform HIV programs targeted at FSWs. A series of workshops, using participatory tools, was held to explore FSW-IP relationships; 31 FSWs and 37 IPs participated. Three aspects of FSW-IP relationships were examined: how FSWs and IPs understand and interpret their relationships, factors influencing condom use, and the role of violence and its consequences. FSWs wish to be perceived as their IPs' wives, while IPs expect their FSW partners to accept their dominance in the relationship. Nonuse of condoms signals fidelity and elevates the status of the relationship almost to that of marriage, which helps FSWs enter the category of "good" (married) women. Tolerating and accepting violence in these relationships is normative, as in other marital relationships; IPs justify violence as necessary to establish and maintain their power within the relationship. Both FSWs and IPs value their relationships despite the high degree of risk posed by low condom use and high levels of violence. Implications for program design include addressing current norms around masculinity and gender roles, and improving communication within relationships.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1 Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bangalore, India. 2 University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.3 University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.1 Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bangalore, India.1 Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bangalore, India. 4 Institute for Financial Management and Research, Chennai, India.1 Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bangalore, India.1 Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bangalore, India.1 Karnataka Health Promotion Trust, Bangalore, India. 2 University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.5 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29618240

Citation

Bhattacharjee, Parinita, et al. "Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India." Health Education & Behavior : the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education, vol. 45, no. 5, 2018, pp. 824-835.
Bhattacharjee P, Campbell L, Thalinja R, et al. Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India. Health Educ Behav. 2018;45(5):824-835.
Bhattacharjee, P., Campbell, L., Thalinja, R., Nair, S., Doddamane, M., Ramanaik, S., Isac, S., & Beattie, T. S. (2018). Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India. Health Education & Behavior : the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 45(5), 824-835. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198118763934
Bhattacharjee P, et al. Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India. Health Educ Behav. 2018;45(5):824-835. PubMed PMID: 29618240.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India. AU - Bhattacharjee,Parinita, AU - Campbell,Linda, AU - Thalinja,Raghavendra, AU - Nair,Sapna, AU - Doddamane,Mahesh, AU - Ramanaik,Satyanarayana, AU - Isac,Shajy, AU - Beattie,Tara S, Y1 - 2018/04/04/ PY - 2018/4/6/pubmed PY - 2019/5/29/medline PY - 2018/4/6/entrez KW - HIV KW - condom KW - female sex worker KW - intimate partner KW - violence SP - 824 EP - 835 JF - Health education & behavior : the official publication of the Society for Public Health Education JO - Health Educ Behav VL - 45 IS - 5 N2 - While traditional HIV prevention programs with female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India, have focused on reducing HIV transmission between FSWs and clients through increased condom use, these programs have not fully addressed the transmission risk between FSWs and their nonpaying intimate partners (IPs). Condom use is infrequent and violence is recurrent in these relationships: Furthermore, there is little evidence on the precise nature of FSW-IP relationships. Our study addresses this knowledge gap to inform HIV programs targeted at FSWs. A series of workshops, using participatory tools, was held to explore FSW-IP relationships; 31 FSWs and 37 IPs participated. Three aspects of FSW-IP relationships were examined: how FSWs and IPs understand and interpret their relationships, factors influencing condom use, and the role of violence and its consequences. FSWs wish to be perceived as their IPs' wives, while IPs expect their FSW partners to accept their dominance in the relationship. Nonuse of condoms signals fidelity and elevates the status of the relationship almost to that of marriage, which helps FSWs enter the category of "good" (married) women. Tolerating and accepting violence in these relationships is normative, as in other marital relationships; IPs justify violence as necessary to establish and maintain their power within the relationship. Both FSWs and IPs value their relationships despite the high degree of risk posed by low condom use and high levels of violence. Implications for program design include addressing current norms around masculinity and gender roles, and improving communication within relationships. SN - 1552-6127 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29618240/Understanding_the_Relationship_Between_Female_Sex_Workers_and_Their_Intimate_Partners:_Lessons_and_Initial_Findings_From_Participatory_Research_in_North_Karnataka_South_India_ L2 - http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1090198118763934?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -