Differential responses to Cd stress induced by exogenous application of Cu, Zn or Ca in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Aug 15; 157:266-275.EE
Cd(II) is one of the most widespread and toxic heavy metals and seriously threatens plant growth, furthermore negatively affecting human health. For survival from this metal stress, plants always fight with Cd(II) toxicity by themselves or using other external factors. The effects of second metals copper (Cu(II)), zinc (Zn(II)) and calcium (Ca(II)) on the Cd(II)-affected root morphology, Cd(II) translocation and metabolic responses in Catharanthus roseus were investigated under hydroponic conditions. We found that the Cd-stressed plants displayed the browning and rot root symptom, excess H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation and Cd(II) accumulation in plants. However, the supplement with second metals largely alleviated Cd-induced toxicity, including browning and rot roots, oxidative stress and internal Cd(II) accumulation. The amended effects at metabolic and transcriptional levels involved in different second metals share either common or divergent strategies. They commonly repressed Cd uptake and promoted Cd(II) translocation from roots to shoots with divergent mechanisms. High Zn(II) could activate MTs expression in roots, while Cu(II) or Ca(II) did not under Cd(II) stress condition. The presence of Ca(II) under Cd stress condition largely initiated occurrence of lateral roots. We then grouped a metabolic diagram integrating terpenoid indole alkaloid (TIA) accumulation and TIA pathway gene expression to elucidate the metabolic response of C. roseus to Cd(II) alone or combined with second metals. The treatment with 100 Cd(II) alone largely promoted accumulation of vinblastine, vindoline, catharanthine and loganin, whereas depressed or little changed the expression levels of genes detected here, compared to 0 Cd(II) control. In the presence of Cd(II), the supplement with second metals displayed specific effect on different alkaloid. Among them, the metal Ca(II) is especially beneficial for serpentine accumulation, Zn(II) mainly promoted tabersonine production. However, the addition of Cu(II) commonly depressed accumulation of most alkaloids detected here. Generally, we presented different mechanisms by which the second metals used to alleviate Cd (II) toxicity. This plant has potential application in phytoremediation of Cd(II), due to relatively substantial accumulation of biomass, as well as secondary metabolites TIAs used as pharmaceutical materials when facing Cd stress.