Influences of Chlorella vulgaris dietary supplementation on growth performance, hematology, immune response and disease resistance in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of penoxsulam herbicide.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018 Jun; 77:445-456.FS
Little is known regarding the impact of penoxsulam, a fluorinated benzenesulfonamid rice herbicide, on Oreochromis niloticus (O. niloticus). Therefore, the current study was undertaken to highlight the effects of penoxsulam exposure on O. niloticus and to evaluate the advantages of Chlorella vulgaris (CV) dietary supplementation against the induced effects. The 96-h lethal concentration 50 (LC50) penoxsulam value for O. niloticus was estimated at 8.948 mg/L by probit analysis in a static bioassay experiment. Next, 360 healthy fish were randomly allocated into 6 treatment groups. The T1 group served as the negative control and was fed a basal diet. The T2 group served as the positive control and was fed a basal diet supplemented with 10% CV. The fish in the T3 and T4 groups were exposed to 1/10 the 96-h LC50 of penoxsulam (0.8948 mg/L) and were fed the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 10% CV, respectively. The fish in the T5 and T6 groups were exposed to 1/5 the 96-h LC50 of penoxsulam (1.7896 mg/L) and fed the basal diet alone or the basal diet supplemented with 10% CV, respectively. Sub-acute penoxsulam exposure significantly altered hematological indices, as well as compromised the fish's immune defense mechanisms, including the phagocytic percentage, phagocytic index, nitric oxide production, immunoglobulin M levels and lysozyme, anti-trypsin and bactericidal activities subsequently decreasing O. niloticus's resistance to the Aeromonus sobria challenge and increasing disease symptoms and the mortality rate. Furthermore, sub-chronic penoxsulam exposure markedly altered growth performance, oxidant/antioxidant status and liver status and down-regulated the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis-α (TNF-α). Interestingly, incorporating 10% CV into the diet protects fish against sub-acute penoxsulam-induced immunotoxicity via improvement of immune responses that increases the resistance against bacterial infection. Further, it improved the growth performance, oxidant/antioxidant status, liver status and markedly up-regulated immune-related gene expression, IL-1β and TNF-α, in the spleens of fish sub-chronically exposed to penoxsulam. These outcomes showed that dietary CV supplementation can protect the commercially valuable freshwater fish O. niloticus against penoxsulam toxicity and may be a potential feed supplement for Nile tilapia in aquaculture.