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Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.
Chemosphere. 2018 Jul; 203:336-344.C

Abstract

The concentration and fates of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which adopted the activated sludge technology in the Amathole Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa were investigated. The six PAEs were detected in all the influents and in almost all the WWTP effluent of which DBP was the most abundant in the influent followed by DEHP. Influent concentration of DBP in the three WWTPs ranged between 2.7 and 2488 μgL-1 and the average effluent concentration was 4.90-8.88 μgL-1. On average, the concentration of PAEs in WWTP effluents were higher than PAEs in the upstream and downstream of the discharging point suggesting PAE impact on the receiving water. The concentrations detected in the sludge of which DEHP and DBP were more pervasive ranged between 130 and 1094 μg/g dry weight. The average removal capacity; 27.3-99.5% suggested more adsorption on settling particles and sludge than biodegradation as high significant correlation was found between PAEs removal, total suspended solid and turbidity. Removal of high molecular weight and high octanol-water partition coefficient (logKow) PAEs through adsorption was found to be significantly high. It could be concluded that the release of PAEs into the sludge, and the amount in the final effluent which were found to exceed the acceptable levels allowed internationally, raises safety concern for both aquatic and human's health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa. Electronic address: taosal2002@gmail.com.SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Department of Chemistry, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria.SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa; Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29626811

Citation

Salaudeen, Taofeek, et al. "Fate and Impact of Phthalates in Activated Sludge Treated Municipal Wastewater On the Water Bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa." Chemosphere, vol. 203, 2018, pp. 336-344.
Salaudeen T, Okoh O, Agunbiade F, et al. Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Chemosphere. 2018;203:336-344.
Salaudeen, T., Okoh, O., Agunbiade, F., & Okoh, A. (2018). Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Chemosphere, 203, 336-344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.03.176
Salaudeen T, et al. Fate and Impact of Phthalates in Activated Sludge Treated Municipal Wastewater On the Water Bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Chemosphere. 2018;203:336-344. PubMed PMID: 29626811.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fate and impact of phthalates in activated sludge treated municipal wastewater on the water bodies in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. AU - Salaudeen,Taofeek, AU - Okoh,Omobola, AU - Agunbiade,Foluso, AU - Okoh,Anthony, Y1 - 2018/03/28/ PY - 2017/09/14/received PY - 2018/03/19/revised PY - 2018/03/26/accepted PY - 2018/4/8/pubmed PY - 2018/7/18/medline PY - 2018/4/8/entrez KW - Final effluent KW - Phthalate esters KW - Receiving water KW - Sludge KW - Wastewater KW - Wastewater treatment plants SP - 336 EP - 344 JF - Chemosphere JO - Chemosphere VL - 203 N2 - The concentration and fates of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs); dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP) in wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) which adopted the activated sludge technology in the Amathole Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa were investigated. The six PAEs were detected in all the influents and in almost all the WWTP effluent of which DBP was the most abundant in the influent followed by DEHP. Influent concentration of DBP in the three WWTPs ranged between 2.7 and 2488 μgL-1 and the average effluent concentration was 4.90-8.88 μgL-1. On average, the concentration of PAEs in WWTP effluents were higher than PAEs in the upstream and downstream of the discharging point suggesting PAE impact on the receiving water. The concentrations detected in the sludge of which DEHP and DBP were more pervasive ranged between 130 and 1094 μg/g dry weight. The average removal capacity; 27.3-99.5% suggested more adsorption on settling particles and sludge than biodegradation as high significant correlation was found between PAEs removal, total suspended solid and turbidity. Removal of high molecular weight and high octanol-water partition coefficient (logKow) PAEs through adsorption was found to be significantly high. It could be concluded that the release of PAEs into the sludge, and the amount in the final effluent which were found to exceed the acceptable levels allowed internationally, raises safety concern for both aquatic and human's health. SN - 1879-1298 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29626811/Fate_and_impact_of_phthalates_in_activated_sludge_treated_municipal_wastewater_on_the_water_bodies_in_the_Eastern_Cape_South_Africa_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(18)30605-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -