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Distribution of rotavirus genotypes associated with acute diarrhoea in Zimbabwean children less than five years old before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction.
Vaccine. 2018 11 12; 36(47):7248-7255.V

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Sentinel surveillance for diarrhoea is important to monitor changes in rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children under 5 years before and after vaccine introduction. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care introduced rotavirus vaccine in national immunization program in May 2014.

METHODS

Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhoea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from 2008 to 2016. Children aged less than 5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping of positive stools was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assays. Pre-vaccine introduction, 10% of all positive stool specimens were genotyped and all adequate positive stools were genotyped post-vaccine introduction.

RESULTS

During the pre-vaccine period, a total of 6491 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 3016 (46%) tested positive for rotavirus and 312 (10%) of the rotavirus positive stools were genotyped. During the post-vaccine period, a total of 3750 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 937 (25%) tested positive for rotavirus and 784 (84%) were genotyped. During the pre-vaccine introduction the most frequent genotype was G9P[8] (21%) followed by G2P[4] (12%), G1P[8] (6%), G2P[6] (5%), G12P[6] (4%), G9P[6] (3%) and G8P[4] (3%). G1P[8] (30%) was most dominant two years after vaccine introduction followed by G9P[6] (20%), G2P[4] (15%), G9P[8] (11%) and G1P[6] (4%).

CONCLUSION

The decline in positivity rate is an indication of early vaccine impact. Diversity of circulating strains underscores the importance of continued monitoring and strain surveillance after vaccine introduction.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medical Microbiology (University of Zimbabwe-College of Health Sciences), Zimbabwe; National Virology Reference Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe. Electronic address: amukaratirwa@yahoo.com.Department of Medical Microbiology (University of Zimbabwe-College of Health Sciences), Zimbabwe; National Virology Reference Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe.Department of Medical Microbiology (University of Zimbabwe-College of Health Sciences), Zimbabwe; National Virology Reference Laboratory, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health (University of Zimbabwe-College of Health Sciences), Zimbabwe.Paediatric Ward, Chitungwiza Central Hospital, Zimbabwe.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health (University of Zimbabwe-College of Health Sciences), Zimbabwe.Epidemiology and Disease Control Directorate, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe.National Health Laboratory Services Directorate, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe.Expanded programme on Immunization Unit, Ministry of Health and Child Care, Zimbabwe.World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo.World Health Organization, Inter-Country Support Team Office, Harare, Zimbabwe.SAMRC Diarrhoeal Pathogens Research Unit, Department of Virology, Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.Department of Paediatrics and Child Health (University of Zimbabwe-College of Health Sciences), Zimbabwe.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29628149

Citation

Mukaratirwa, Arnold, et al. "Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes Associated With Acute Diarrhoea in Zimbabwean Children Less Than Five Years Old Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction." Vaccine, vol. 36, no. 47, 2018, pp. 7248-7255.
Mukaratirwa A, Berejena C, Nziramasanga P, et al. Distribution of rotavirus genotypes associated with acute diarrhoea in Zimbabwean children less than five years old before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Vaccine. 2018;36(47):7248-7255.
Mukaratirwa, A., Berejena, C., Nziramasanga, P., Ticklay, I., Gonah, A., Nathoo, K., Manangazira, P., Mangwanya, D., Marembo, J., Mwenda, J. M., Weldegebriel, G., Seheri, M., Tate, J. E., Yen, C., Parashar, U., & Mujuru, H. (2018). Distribution of rotavirus genotypes associated with acute diarrhoea in Zimbabwean children less than five years old before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Vaccine, 36(47), 7248-7255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.03.069
Mukaratirwa A, et al. Distribution of Rotavirus Genotypes Associated With Acute Diarrhoea in Zimbabwean Children Less Than Five Years Old Before and After Rotavirus Vaccine Introduction. Vaccine. 2018 11 12;36(47):7248-7255. PubMed PMID: 29628149.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution of rotavirus genotypes associated with acute diarrhoea in Zimbabwean children less than five years old before and after rotavirus vaccine introduction. AU - Mukaratirwa,Arnold, AU - Berejena,Chipo, AU - Nziramasanga,Pasipanodya, AU - Ticklay,Ismail, AU - Gonah,Archebald, AU - Nathoo,Kusum, AU - Manangazira,Portia, AU - Mangwanya,Douglas, AU - Marembo,Joan, AU - Mwenda,Jason M, AU - Weldegebriel,Goitom, AU - Seheri,Mapaseka, AU - Tate,Jacqueline E, AU - Yen,Catherine, AU - Parashar,Umesh, AU - Mujuru,Hilda, Y1 - 2018/04/05/ PY - 2017/08/20/received PY - 2018/03/21/revised PY - 2018/03/26/accepted PY - 2018/4/10/pubmed PY - 2019/2/15/medline PY - 2018/4/10/entrez KW - Genotypes vaccine KW - Rotavirus KW - Surveillance KW - Zimbabwe SP - 7248 EP - 7255 JF - Vaccine JO - Vaccine VL - 36 IS - 47 N2 - BACKGROUND: Sentinel surveillance for diarrhoea is important to monitor changes in rotavirus epidemiological trends and circulating genotypes among children under 5 years before and after vaccine introduction. The Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care introduced rotavirus vaccine in national immunization program in May 2014. METHODS: Active hospital-based surveillance for diarrhoea was conducted at 3 sentinel sites from 2008 to 2016. Children aged less than 5 years, who presented with acute gastroenteritis as a primary illness and who were admitted to a hospital ward or treated at the emergency unit, were enrolled and had a stool specimen collected and tested for rotavirus by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping of positive stools was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and genotyping assays. Pre-vaccine introduction, 10% of all positive stool specimens were genotyped and all adequate positive stools were genotyped post-vaccine introduction. RESULTS: During the pre-vaccine period, a total of 6491 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 3016 (46%) tested positive for rotavirus and 312 (10%) of the rotavirus positive stools were genotyped. During the post-vaccine period, a total of 3750 acute gastroenteritis stools were collected, of which 937 (25%) tested positive for rotavirus and 784 (84%) were genotyped. During the pre-vaccine introduction the most frequent genotype was G9P[8] (21%) followed by G2P[4] (12%), G1P[8] (6%), G2P[6] (5%), G12P[6] (4%), G9P[6] (3%) and G8P[4] (3%). G1P[8] (30%) was most dominant two years after vaccine introduction followed by G9P[6] (20%), G2P[4] (15%), G9P[8] (11%) and G1P[6] (4%). CONCLUSION: The decline in positivity rate is an indication of early vaccine impact. Diversity of circulating strains underscores the importance of continued monitoring and strain surveillance after vaccine introduction. SN - 1873-2518 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29628149/Distribution_of_rotavirus_genotypes_associated_with_acute_diarrhoea_in_Zimbabwean_children_less_than_five_years_old_before_and_after_rotavirus_vaccine_introduction_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264-410X(18)30438-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -