Efficient degradation of imipramine by iron oxychloride-activated peroxymonosulfate process.J Hazard Mater. 2018 07 05; 353:18-25.JH
Synthesized iron oxychloride (FeOCl) was firstly applied to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to degrade imipramine (IMI), a tricyclic antidepressant. Compared to some other Fe-based materials including zero valent iron, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and ferric ions, FeOCl presented an impressive catalytic activity on PMS at near-neutral condition due to its unique structure containing abundant unsaturated iron atoms and oxo-bridged configuration. With an increase of FeOCl dose, PMS dose or initial pH in ranges of 0.02 - 0.5 g/L, 0.1 - 2.5 mM and 4.0 - 8.0, the degradation efficiency of IMI was effectively raised by 64.0%, 48.5% and 50.6%, respectively. The presence of either bicarbonate or chloride stimulated the removal of IMI. Moreover, 70.4% of IMI was degraded under the background of real water with 2 mM PMS. The possible reactive species were identified as sulfate and hydroxyl radicals. The formed hypochlorite through the reaction of PMS and the released chloride ions may also contribute to the degradation of IMI. Among the oxidants, sulfate radical was proven to be the dominate one in the system. Additionally, the FeOCl/PMS system can overall effectively degrade six other organic compounds including amitriptyline, desipramine, propranolol, nitrobenzene, methyl-paraben and ethyl-paraben, further suggesting the possible application of this system in treatment of vast aquatic micro-organic pollutants.