Association between Mediterranean diet and hand grip strength in older adult women.Clin Nutr 2019; 38(2):721-729CN
BACKGROUND & AIMS
Mediterranean Diet (MD) is an eating pattern associated with multiple healthy benefits, including the conservation of skeletal muscle. Frailty is a major geriatric syndrome characterized by low muscle strength. The Hand Grip Strength (HGS) is the most frequently used indicator of muscle functional capacity for clinical purposes. The association between the adherence to the MD and HGS in elderly has not yet fully investigated. The goal of this study was to examine the association between the adherence to the MD and HGS in a not hospitalized elderly who participated in the project PERsonalised ict Supported Services for Independent Living and Active Ageing (PERSSILAA).
Eighty-four elderly women were consecutively enrolled (aged 60-85 years) in this cross-sectional observational study. Anthropometric measures were evaluated. A validated 14-item questionnaire PREDIMED (PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea) was used for the assessment of adherence to the MD. Dietary data were collected by a 7-day food records. Muscle strength was measured by HGS using a grip strength dynamometer (KERN & SOHN GmbH).
The majority of participants were overweight (46.4%). An average adherence to the MD was found in 52.4% of participants, while the minority of them showed a low adherence (21.4%). HGS > cut-point of 20 kg were found in 43 subjects (51.2%). According to the adherence to MD, 39% participants with HGS values higher than cut-point presented a high adherence score compared with 14% of those with lower values of HGS (p = 0.018). The participants with HGS > cut-point presented significantly higher PREDIMED score than those with HGS < cut-point (p < 0.001). Based on ROC curves, the most sensitive and specific cut-point for the PREDIMED score to predict HGS categories was ≥8. No evident correlations were observed between HGS and age, while HGS was negatively correlated with hip circumference (r = -0.233, p = 0.033) and BMI (r = -0.219, p = 0.045), and positively correlated with PREDIMED score (r = 0.598, p < 0.001). At binomial logistic regression analysis almost all 14-items of PREDIMED questionnaire were significantly associated with HGS adjusted for BMI. At multinomial logistic regression analysis to assess the association of the three classes of adherence to the MD with the HGS, after adjusting for BMI the lowest adherence to MD was associated with the lowest Odds Ratio of HGS (p < 0.001).
This study evidenced a positive association between the adherence to the MD and muscle strength in a sample of active elderly women, stratified according to the HGS > cut-point of 20 kg. Our study highlights the usefulness of the developing health services to detect and prevent age-associated decline in physical performance in elderly subjects by addressing nutritional and physical intervention.