On the Efficacy of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation and Epinephrine Following Cyanide- and H2S Intoxication-Induced Cardiac Asystole.Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2018 10; 18(5):436-449.CT
This study was aimed at determining the efficacy of epinephrine, followed by chest compressions, in producing a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) during cyanide (CN)- or hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-induced toxic cardiac pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in the rat. Thirty-nine anesthetized rats were exposed to either intravenous KCN (n = 27) or H2S solutions (n = 12), at a rate that led to a PEA within less than 10 min. In the group intoxicated by CN, 20 rats were mechanically ventilated and received either epinephrine (0.1 mg/kg i.v. n = 10) followed by chest compressions or saline (n = 10, "control CN") when in PEA. PEA was defined as a systolic pressure below 20 mmHg and a pulse pressure of less than 5 mmHg for 1 min. In addition, seven spontaneously breathing rats were also exposed to the same CN protocol, but infusion was stopped when a central apnea occurred; then, as soon as a PEA occurred, epinephrine (0.1 mg/kg IV) was administered while providing manual chest compressions and mechanical ventilation (CPR). Finally, 12 rats were intoxicated with H2S, while mechanically ventilated, and received either saline (n = 6, "control H2S") or epinephrine (n = 6) with CPR when in PEA. None of the control-intoxicated animals resuscitated (10 rats in the control CN group and 6 in the control H2S group). In contrast, all the animals intoxicated with CN or H2S that received epinephrine followed by chest compressions, returned to effective circulation. In addition, half of the spontaneously breathing CN-intoxicated animals that achieved ROSC after epinephrine resumed spontaneous breathing. In all the animals achieving ROSC, blood pressure, cardiac output, peripheral blood flow and [Formula: see text]O2 returned toward baseline, but remained lower than the pre-intoxication levels (p < 0.01) with a persistent lactic acidosis. Epinephrine, along with CPR maneuvers, was highly effective in resuscitating rodents intoxicated with CN or H2S. Since epinephrine is readily available in any ambulance, its place as an important countermeasure against mitochondrial poisons should be advocated. It remains critical to determine whether the systematic administration of epinephrine to any victims found hypotensive following CN or H2S intoxication could prevent PEA, decrease post-ischemic brain injury and increase the efficacy of current antidotes by improving the circulatory status.