Cognitive Frailty and Its Association with All-Cause Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Taiwan: Results from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study.Rejuvenation Res. 2018 Dec; 21(6):510-517.RR
The definition of cognitive frailty and its prediction for adverse outcome of community-living older adults remains controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between cognitive frailty and all-cause mortality among community-living older adults. Data of the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) were retrieved for study. Frailty was defined by Fried's criteria, and a series of neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiology Studies-Depression, the delayed free recall in the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test, the Boston Naming Test, the category (animal) Verbal Fluency Test, the Taylor Complex Figure Test, the digital backward, and the Clock Drawing Test were performed. All participants received blood sampling after 10-hour overnight fast for various biochemical markers. Cognitive frailty was defined as the concomitant presence of dynapenia and cognitive declines in any domains. Overall, data of 678 participants aged 65 years and older (mean age: 73.3 ± 5.3 years) were obtained for the study. The prevalence of cognitive frailty in this study was 13.3%. People with cognitive frailty were significantly older, having higher multimorbidity burden, more likely to be women, and had less skeletal muscle mass. Adjusted for age and gender, both dynapenia without cognitive impairment (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.402; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.463-19.954; p = 0.011) and cognitive frailty (HR: 6.682; 95% CI: 1.803-26.116; p = 0.005) were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The prevalence of cognitive frailty was 13.3% in Taiwan and was predictive for all-cause mortality. Further study is needed to explore the pathophysiology and reversibility of cognitive frailty.