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Modulating fluid intelligence performance through combined cognitive training and brain stimulation.
Neuropsychologia. 2018 09; 118(Pt A):107-114.N

Abstract

It is debated whether cognitive training of specific executive functions leads to far transfer effects, such as improvements in fluid intelligence (Gf). Within this context, transcranial direct current stimulation and recently also novel protocols such as transcranial random noise and alternating current stimulation are being investigated with regards to their ability to enhance cognitive training outcomes. We compared the effects of four different transcranial electrical brain stimulation protocols in combination with nine daily computerized training sessions on Gf. 82 participants were randomly assigned to receive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), random noise stimulation (tRNS), multifocal alternating current stimulation at 40 Hz (mftACS), or multifocal tDCS (mftDCS) in combination with an adaptive and synergistic executive function (EF) training, or to a no-contact control group. EF training consisted of gamified tasks drawing on isolated as well as integrated executive functions (working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility). Transfer was assessed with a combined measure of Gf including three established tests (Bochumer Matrizentest - BOMAT, Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices - RAPM, and Sandia Matrices). We found significant improvements in Gf for the tDCS, mftDCS, and tRNS groups when compared with the no-contact group. In contrast, the mftACS group did not improve significantly and showed a similar pattern as the no-contact group. Mediation analyses indicated that the improvement in Gf was mediated through game progression in the mftDCS and tRNS group. Electrical brain stimulation in combination with sustained EF training can lead to transfer effects in Gf, which are mediated by training progression.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division for Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: anna-katharine_brem@psych.mpg.de.Honeywell Labs, Honeywell Aerospace, Redmond, WA, United States.Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division for Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division for Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.Honeywell Labs, Honeywell Aerospace, Redmond, WA, United States.Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United States.Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United States.Honeywell Labs, Honeywell Aerospace, Redmond, WA, United States.Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division for Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom. Electronic address: roi.cohenkadosh@psy.ox.ac.uk.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29649503

Citation

Brem, Anna-Katharine, et al. "Modulating Fluid Intelligence Performance Through Combined Cognitive Training and Brain Stimulation." Neuropsychologia, vol. 118, no. Pt A, 2018, pp. 107-114.
Brem AK, Almquist JN, Mansfield K, et al. Modulating fluid intelligence performance through combined cognitive training and brain stimulation. Neuropsychologia. 2018;118(Pt A):107-114.
Brem, A. K., Almquist, J. N., Mansfield, K., Plessow, F., Sella, F., Santarnecchi, E., Orhan, U., McKanna, J., Pavel, M., Mathan, S., Yeung, N., Pascual-Leone, A., & Kadosh, R. C. (2018). Modulating fluid intelligence performance through combined cognitive training and brain stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 118(Pt A), 107-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2018.04.008
Brem AK, et al. Modulating Fluid Intelligence Performance Through Combined Cognitive Training and Brain Stimulation. Neuropsychologia. 2018;118(Pt A):107-114. PubMed PMID: 29649503.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Modulating fluid intelligence performance through combined cognitive training and brain stimulation. AU - Brem,Anna-Katharine, AU - Almquist,Jessamy Norton-Ford, AU - Mansfield,Karen, AU - Plessow,Franziska, AU - Sella,Francesco, AU - Santarnecchi,Emiliano, AU - Orhan,Umut, AU - McKanna,James, AU - Pavel,Misha, AU - Mathan,Santosh, AU - Yeung,Nick, AU - Pascual-Leone,Alvaro, AU - Kadosh,Roi Cohen, AU - ,, Y1 - 2018/04/09/ PY - 2017/09/29/received PY - 2018/03/31/revised PY - 2018/04/06/accepted PY - 2018/4/13/pubmed PY - 2019/2/8/medline PY - 2018/4/13/entrez KW - Cognitive enhancement KW - Cognitive training KW - Executive functions KW - Fluid intelligence KW - Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) SP - 107 EP - 114 JF - Neuropsychologia JO - Neuropsychologia VL - 118 IS - Pt A N2 - It is debated whether cognitive training of specific executive functions leads to far transfer effects, such as improvements in fluid intelligence (Gf). Within this context, transcranial direct current stimulation and recently also novel protocols such as transcranial random noise and alternating current stimulation are being investigated with regards to their ability to enhance cognitive training outcomes. We compared the effects of four different transcranial electrical brain stimulation protocols in combination with nine daily computerized training sessions on Gf. 82 participants were randomly assigned to receive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), random noise stimulation (tRNS), multifocal alternating current stimulation at 40 Hz (mftACS), or multifocal tDCS (mftDCS) in combination with an adaptive and synergistic executive function (EF) training, or to a no-contact control group. EF training consisted of gamified tasks drawing on isolated as well as integrated executive functions (working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility). Transfer was assessed with a combined measure of Gf including three established tests (Bochumer Matrizentest - BOMAT, Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices - RAPM, and Sandia Matrices). We found significant improvements in Gf for the tDCS, mftDCS, and tRNS groups when compared with the no-contact group. In contrast, the mftACS group did not improve significantly and showed a similar pattern as the no-contact group. Mediation analyses indicated that the improvement in Gf was mediated through game progression in the mftDCS and tRNS group. Electrical brain stimulation in combination with sustained EF training can lead to transfer effects in Gf, which are mediated by training progression. SN - 1873-3514 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29649503/Modulating_fluid_intelligence_performance_through_combined_cognitive_training_and_brain_stimulation_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -