Incidence, risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus using one-step versus two-step diagnostic approaches: A population-based cohort study in Isfahan, Iran.Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2018; 140:288-294DR
To study the incidence, risk factors, and pregnancy outcomes associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed with one-step and two-step screening approaches.
1000 pregnant women who were eligible and consented to participate underwent fasting plasma glucose testing at the first prenatal visit (6-14 weeks). The women free from GDM or overt diabetes were screened at 24-28 weeks using the 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by 100-g, 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (two-step method). Regardless of the GCT result, all women underwent a 75-g, 2-h OGTT within one-week interval (one-step method).
GDM incidence using the one-step and two-step methods was 9.3% (95% CI: 7.4-11.2) and 4.2% (95% CI: 2.9-5.5). GDM significantly increased the risk of macrosomia, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and cesarean section and older age and family history of diabetes significantly increased the risk of developing GDM in both approaches. In two-step method, higher pre-pregnancy body mass index and lower physical activity during pregnancy along with higher earlier cesarean section also increased significantly the risk of developing GDM.
Despite a higher incidence of GDM using the one-step approach, more risk factors for and a stronger effect of GDM on adverse pregnancy outcomes were found when using the two-step approach. Longer follow-up of women with and without GDM may change the results using both approaches.