Carbohydrate Replacement of Rice or Potato with Lentils Reduces the Postprandial Glycemic Response in Healthy Adults in an Acute, Randomized, Crossover Trial.J Nutr 2018; 148(4):535-541JN
The postprandial blood glucose response (PBGR) following carbohydrate replacement of high-glycemic index (GI) foods with pulses, in a mixed meal, has not been accurately defined.
We aimed to determine the extent to which PBGR and relative glycemic response (RGR) are lowered when half of the available carbohydrate (AC) from rice or potato is replaced with cooked lentils.
Using a crossover design, 2 groups of 24 healthy adults randomly consumed 50 g AC from control white rice alone [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 24.3 ± 0.5; mean ± SD age: 27.7 ± 1.2 y], instant potato alone (BMI: 24.0 ± 0.5; age: 27.4 ± 1.2 y), or the same starch source in a 50:50 AC combination with each of 3 types of commercially available lentils (large green, small green, split red). Fasting and postprandial blood samples were analyzed for glucose and insulin, and used to derive incremental area under the curve (iAUC), RGR, and maximum concentration (Cmax). Treatment effects were assessed with the use of repeated-measures ANOVA within the rice and potato treatments.
In comparison to rice alone, blood glucose iAUC and Cmax (P < 0.001) were lowered after consumption of rice with large green (P = 0.057), small green (P = 0.002), and split red (P = 0.006) lentils. Blood glucose iAUC and Cmax were also significantly lowered (P < 0.0001) after consumption of potato combined with each lentil, compared to potato alone. Plasma insulin iAUC and Cmax were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased when lentils were combined with potato, but not with rice. The RGRs of rice and potato were lowered by ∼20% and 35%, respectively, when half of their AC was replaced with lentils.
Replacing half of the AC from high-GI foods with lentils significantly attenuates PBGR in healthy adults; this can contribute to defining a health claim for pulses and blood glucose lowering. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02426606.