Cranial Pair 0: The Nervus Terminalis.Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2019 03; 302(3):394-404.AR
Originally discovered in elasmobranchs by Fritsh in 1878, the nervus terminalis has been found in virtually all species, including humans. After more than one-century debate on its nomenclature, it is nowadays recognized as cranial pair zero. The nerve mostly originates in the olfactory placode, although neural crest contribution has been also proposed. Developmentally, the nervus terminalis is clearly observed in human embryos; subsequently, during the fetal period loses some of its ganglion cells, and it is less recognizable in adults. Fibers originating in the nasal cavity passes into the cranium through the middle area of the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone. Intracranially, fibers joint the telencephalon at several sites including the olfactory trigone and the primordium of the hippocampus to reach preoptic and precommissural regions. The nervus terminalis shows ganglion cells, that sometimes form clusters, normally one or two located at the base of the crista galli, the so-called ganglion of the nervus terminalis. Its function is uncertain. It has been described that its fibers facilitates migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone cells to the hypothalamus thus participating in the development of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis, which alteration may provoke Kallmann's syndrome in humans. This review summarizes current knowledge on this structure, incorporating original illustrations of the nerve at different developmental stages, and focuses on its anatomical and clinical relevance. Anat Rec, 302:394-404, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.