Histopathologic Findings in Canine Pituitary Glands.Vet Pathol. 2018 11; 55(6):871-879.VP
To optimize the histologic evaluation of hypophysectomy specimens, sections of 207 canine pituitary glands (196 postmortem, 11 hypophysectomy specimens) were reviewed. Adenohypophyseal proliferation was the most common (n = 79) lesion. Proliferative lesions were sparsely to densely granulated; the granules were usually basophilic to chromophobic and periodic acid-Schiff-positive. Adenohypophyseal proliferation was classified as hyperplasia (n = 40) if ≤2 mm diameter with intact reticulin network, as microadenoma (n = 22) for 1-5 mm homogeneous nodules with lost reticulin network, or as macroadenoma (n = 17) for larger tumors. Craniopharyngeal duct cysts were common incidental lesions and the only lesion in 15 dogs. Uncommon diagnoses included lymphoma (n = 4), hemorrhagic necrosis (n = 4), metastatic carcinoma (n = 3), hypophysitis (n = 3), ependymoma (n = 2), craniopharyngioma (n = 2), and 1 case each of metastatic melanoma, pituicytoma, gliomatosis, germ cell tumor, meningioma, and atrophy. The pituitary histologic diagnosis was associated with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC; P < .001) and adrenocortical histologic diagnosis (P = .025). Both HAC and adrenocortical hyperplasia showed a positive trend with the degree of adenohypophyseal proliferation. The association of adrenocortical hyperplasia with HAC was not significant (P = .077). Dogs with adenohypophyseal proliferations were older than dogs with normal pituitary glands (P < .05). Brachycephalic breeds were overrepresented among dogs with pituitary macroadenoma or craniopharyngeal duct cysts, but the association was not statistically significant (P = .076). Adenohypophyseal hyperplasia was more common than adenoma among postmortem specimens, but was unexpected in >80% of cases. Pituitary macroadenoma was the most common diagnosis in hypophysectomy specimens.