Heme Oxygenase-1 Influences Satellite Cells and Progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Mice.Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 07 10; 29(2):128-148.AR
Muscle damage in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) caused by the lack of dystrophin is strongly linked to inflammation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Hmox1) is an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective enzyme affecting myoblast differentiation by inhibiting myomiRs. The role of HO-1 has not been so far well addressed in DMD.
In dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, expression of Hmox1 in limb skeletal muscles and diaphragm is higher than in wild-type animals, being consistently elevated from 8 up to 52 weeks, both in myofibers and inflammatory leukocytes. Accordingly, HO-1 expression is induced in muscles of DMD patients. Pharmacological inhibition of HO-1 activity or genetic ablation of Hmox1 aggravates muscle damage and inflammation in mdx mice. Double knockout animals (Hmox1-/-mdx) demonstrate impaired exercise capacity in comparison with mdx mice. Interestingly, in contrast to the effect observed in muscle fibers, in dystrophin-deficient muscle satellite cells (SCs) expression of Hmox1 is decreased, while MyoD, myogenin, and miR-206 are upregulated compared with wild-type counterparts. Mdx SCs demonstrate disturbed and enhanced differentiation, which is further intensified by Hmox1 deficiency. RNA sequencing revealed downregulation of Atf3, MafK, Foxo1, and Klf2 transcription factors, known to activate Hmox1 expression, as well as attenuation of nitric oxide-mediated cGMP-dependent signaling in mdx SCs. Accordingly, treatment with NO-donor induces Hmox1 expression and inhibits differentiation. Finally, differentiation of mdx SCs was normalized by CO, a product of HO-1 activity. Innovation and Conclusions: HO-1 is induced in DMD, and HO-1 inhibition aggravates DMD pathology. Therefore, HO-1 can be considered a therapeutic target to alleviate this disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.