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Effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination for repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial.
Int J Nurs Stud. 2018 Jul; 83:25-33.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Sucrose combined with non-nutritive sucking provided better pain relief than sucrose or non-nutritive sucking alone in a single painful procedure. However, whether the combination of non-nutritive sucking with sucrose could obtain a significant difference in analgesic effect of the repeated procedural pain than any single intervention has not been established.

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination of repeated procedural pain in preterm infants.

DESIGN

Randomized controlled trial.

SETTING

A level III neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in China.

METHOD

Preterm infants born before 37 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to four groups: routine care group (routine comfort through gentle touch when infants cried; n = 21), non-nutritive sucking group (n = 22), sucrose group (0.2 ml/kg of 20%; n = 21), sucrose (0.2 ml/kg of 20%) plus non-nutritive sucking group (n = 22). Each preterm infant received three nonconsecutive routine heel sticks. Each heel stick included three phases: baseline (the last 1 min of the 30 min without stimuli), blood collection, recovery (1 min after blood collection). Three phases of 3 heel stick procedures were videotaped. Premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score, heart rate, oxygen saturation and percentage of crying time were assessed by five independent evaluators who were blinded to the purpose of the study at different phases across three heel sticks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, with repeated measures at different evaluation phases of heel stick.

RESULTS

86 preterm infants completed the protocol. During the blood collection and recovery phases, combination group, had lower PIPP score (4.4 ± 1.5; 3.0 ± 0.8), lower heart rate (138.6 ± 7.9; 137.4 ± 4.7), higher oxygen saturation (95.2 ± 1.6; 96.0 ± 1.2), and smaller percentage of crying time (11.5 ± 8.6; 4.6 ± 3.4), compared with the group has given non-nutritive sucking (9.3 ± 1.3, 6.8 ± 1.4; 154.2 ± 9.0, 148.0 ± 9.3; 92.9 ± 2.4, 94.1 ± 1.0; 44.2 ± 9.6, 31.2 ± 10.5; respectively) or sucrose (10.1 ± 2.0, 7.4 ± 1.6; 151.6 ± 9.6, 147.9 ± 6.9; 93.5 ± 1.7, 94.5 ± 1.2; 53.8 ± 16.7, 35.2 ± 13.9; respectively) or routine care (13.3 ± 1.6, 10.6 ± 1.9; 156.8 ± 7.2, 151.7 ± 7.9; 92.9 ± 2.1, 93.8 ± 1.6; 80.6 ± 7.6, 68.2 ± 9.9; respectively). Both non-nutritive sucking and sucrose were more effective in reducing preterm infants' PIPP score and percentage of crying time than routine care. There was no difference in PIPP score, heart rate, oxygen saturation and percentage of crying time between the non-nutritive sucking and sucrose groups.

CONCLUSION

The combination of non-nutritive sucking with sucrose provided better pain relief during repeated painful procedures than when non-nutritive sucking or sucrose was used alone. The effect of non-nutritive sucking was similar to that of sucrose on repeated procedural pain.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Nursing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address: bpn456@163.com.Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, China.School of Nursing, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29684832

Citation

Gao, Haixia, et al. "Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking and Sucrose Alone and in Combination for Repeated Procedural Pain in Preterm Infants: a Randomized Controlled Trial." International Journal of Nursing Studies, vol. 83, 2018, pp. 25-33.
Gao H, Li M, Gao H, et al. Effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination for repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2018;83:25-33.
Gao, H., Li, M., Gao, H., Xu, G., Li, F., Zhou, J., Zou, Y., & Jiang, H. (2018). Effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination for repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 83, 25-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.04.006
Gao H, et al. Effect of Non-nutritive Sucking and Sucrose Alone and in Combination for Repeated Procedural Pain in Preterm Infants: a Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Nurs Stud. 2018;83:25-33. PubMed PMID: 29684832.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination for repeated procedural pain in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial. AU - Gao,Haixia, AU - Li,Mei, AU - Gao,Honglian, AU - Xu,Guihua, AU - Li,Fang, AU - Zhou,Jing, AU - Zou,Yunsu, AU - Jiang,Honghua, Y1 - 2018/04/07/ PY - 2017/08/08/received PY - 2018/04/04/revised PY - 2018/04/05/accepted PY - 2018/4/24/pubmed PY - 2018/10/26/medline PY - 2018/4/24/entrez KW - Analgesia KW - Non-nutritive sucking KW - Pain KW - Preterm infants KW - Sucrose SP - 25 EP - 33 JF - International journal of nursing studies JO - Int J Nurs Stud VL - 83 N2 - BACKGROUND: Sucrose combined with non-nutritive sucking provided better pain relief than sucrose or non-nutritive sucking alone in a single painful procedure. However, whether the combination of non-nutritive sucking with sucrose could obtain a significant difference in analgesic effect of the repeated procedural pain than any single intervention has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of non-nutritive sucking and sucrose alone and in combination of repeated procedural pain in preterm infants. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A level III neonatal intensive care unit of a university hospital in China. METHOD: Preterm infants born before 37 weeks of gestation were randomly assigned to four groups: routine care group (routine comfort through gentle touch when infants cried; n = 21), non-nutritive sucking group (n = 22), sucrose group (0.2 ml/kg of 20%; n = 21), sucrose (0.2 ml/kg of 20%) plus non-nutritive sucking group (n = 22). Each preterm infant received three nonconsecutive routine heel sticks. Each heel stick included three phases: baseline (the last 1 min of the 30 min without stimuli), blood collection, recovery (1 min after blood collection). Three phases of 3 heel stick procedures were videotaped. Premature infant pain profile (PIPP) score, heart rate, oxygen saturation and percentage of crying time were assessed by five independent evaluators who were blinded to the purpose of the study at different phases across three heel sticks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, with repeated measures at different evaluation phases of heel stick. RESULTS: 86 preterm infants completed the protocol. During the blood collection and recovery phases, combination group, had lower PIPP score (4.4 ± 1.5; 3.0 ± 0.8), lower heart rate (138.6 ± 7.9; 137.4 ± 4.7), higher oxygen saturation (95.2 ± 1.6; 96.0 ± 1.2), and smaller percentage of crying time (11.5 ± 8.6; 4.6 ± 3.4), compared with the group has given non-nutritive sucking (9.3 ± 1.3, 6.8 ± 1.4; 154.2 ± 9.0, 148.0 ± 9.3; 92.9 ± 2.4, 94.1 ± 1.0; 44.2 ± 9.6, 31.2 ± 10.5; respectively) or sucrose (10.1 ± 2.0, 7.4 ± 1.6; 151.6 ± 9.6, 147.9 ± 6.9; 93.5 ± 1.7, 94.5 ± 1.2; 53.8 ± 16.7, 35.2 ± 13.9; respectively) or routine care (13.3 ± 1.6, 10.6 ± 1.9; 156.8 ± 7.2, 151.7 ± 7.9; 92.9 ± 2.1, 93.8 ± 1.6; 80.6 ± 7.6, 68.2 ± 9.9; respectively). Both non-nutritive sucking and sucrose were more effective in reducing preterm infants' PIPP score and percentage of crying time than routine care. There was no difference in PIPP score, heart rate, oxygen saturation and percentage of crying time between the non-nutritive sucking and sucrose groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of non-nutritive sucking with sucrose provided better pain relief during repeated painful procedures than when non-nutritive sucking or sucrose was used alone. The effect of non-nutritive sucking was similar to that of sucrose on repeated procedural pain. SN - 1873-491X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29684832/Effect_of_non_nutritive_sucking_and_sucrose_alone_and_in_combination_for_repeated_procedural_pain_in_preterm_infants:_A_randomized_controlled_trial_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0020-7489(18)30085-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -