Biofilm inhibition mechanism from extract of Hymenocallis littoralis leaves.J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Aug 10; 222:121-132.JE
Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb. has been referred as beach spider lily and commonly known for its rich phytochemical diversity. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, volatile constituents, phenols, flavonoids, flavonols extracted from different parts of these plants like bulbs, flowers, leaf, stem and root had been used in folk medicines from ancient times because of their excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The leaf and bulb extract of H. littoralis plant was traditionally used for wound healing. Alkaloids extracted from bulb of this plant possess anti-viral, anti-neoplastic and cytotoxic properties. However, these phytochemicals have also shown antibiofilm activity, which is considered as one of the important factor accountable for the drug resistance in microorganisms. Thus, the investigation of medicinal properties of H. littoralis could be useful to control biofilm producing pathogens.
AIM OF THE STUDY
Explore antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antioxidant potentials of H. littoralis against pathogenic microorganisms using experimental and computational biology approach.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Phytochemical extraction from dried powder of H. littoralis leaves was done by solvent extraction using methanol. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of leaves extract were carried out using agar well diffusion method, growth curve, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Liquid Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (LCMS) technique was used for the identification of phytochemicals. Molecular docking studies of antibiofilm agents with adhesin proteins were performed using Autodock 4.2. Antioxidant activity of extract was carried out by FRAP assay. The noxious effect of extract was investigated by histological studies on rat skin.
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic leaves extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoid, glycosides, terpene, terpenoids and phenolics. The various phytochemicals such as Apigenin 7-(4'', 6'' diacetylalloside)-4'- alloside, Catechin 7-O- apiofuranoside, Emodic acid, Epicatechin 3-O- β-D-glucopyranoside, 4 - Methylesculetin, Methylisoeugenol, Quercetin 5,7,3',4'-tetramethyl ether 3-rutinoside, 4 - Methylumbelliferyl β-D- glucuronide were extracted, characterized and recognized from the leaves extract of H. littoralis. The identification of these phytochemicals was performed using LC-MS. The antimicrobial property of H. littoralis leaf extract was investigated against different pathogenic microorganisms. Out of these tested microorganisms, promising antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities were confirmed against S. aureus NCIM 2654 and C. albicans NCIM 3466 by using growth curve and SEM analysis. MIC of this leaf extract was identified as 45 µg/ml and 70 µg/ml for S. aureus NCIM 2654 and C. albicans NCIM 3466 respectively. The leaves extract also showed good antioxidant activity due to presence of phenols and flavonoids. Molecular docking of these identified antibiofilm components interacts with the active site residues of adhesin proteins, Sortase A and Als3 from S. aureus and C. albicans respectively. Histological studies of extracted phytochemicals revealed non-noxious effects on rat skin.
Thus, the present study revealed that the leaves extract of H. littoralis contains various phytochemicals having good extent of antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antioxidant properties. The in-vitro and in-silico results would be useful to design new lead compounds against biofilm producing pathogenic microorganisms.