Evaluation of phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Polygonatum verticillatum (L.).J Integr Med. 2018 07; 16(4):273-282.JI
Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. (Ruscaceae), one of the Ashtawarga plants, is widely used for treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of several extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) from the rhizomes of the plant.
Coarsely powdered dry rhizome was successively extracted with different solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and water). The phenolic compositions, in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total condensed tannin content (TTC), were evaluated with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, aluminum chloride colorimetric assay and vanillin spectrophotometric assay, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of each extract. A protein denaturation model and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay were used to evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was carried out to demonstrate various phytoconstituents in each extract. Correlation studies were also performed between phenolic composition (TPC, TFC and TTC) and different biological activities.
Ethanol extract showed maximum TPC (0.126 mg/g, gallic acid equivalent in dry sample), TFC (0.094 mg/g, rutin equivalent in dry sample) and TTC (29.32 mg/g, catechin equivalent in dry sample), as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Chloroform extract exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity against the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 90 different phytoconstituents among the extracts. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities had a positive correlation with TPC, TFC and TTC. However, the anticancer activity showed a negative correlation with TPC, TFC and TTC.
From the present study, it can be concluded that P. verticillatum possessed remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, which could be due to different secondary metabolites of the plant. Phenolic compounds are likely responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, flavonoids and other compounds might contribute to the anticancer potential of the plant.