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Comparison of Rates of Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide and Suicide in Black and White Non-Hispanic Men, by U.S. State.
Ann Intern Med 2018; 168(10):712-720AIM

Abstract

Background

The extent to which differences in homicide and suicide rates in black versus white men vary by U.S. state is unknown.

Objective

To compare the rates of firearm and nonfirearm homicide and suicide in black and white non-Hispanic men by U.S. state and to examine whether these deaths are associated with state prevalence of gun ownership.

Design

Surveillance study.

Setting

50 states and the District of Columbia, 2008 to 2016. Cause-of-death data were abstracted by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) database.

Participants

Non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white males, all ages.

Measurements

Absolute rates of and rate differences in firearm and nonfirearm homicide and suicide in black and white men.

Results

During the 9-year study period, 84 113 homicides and 251 772 suicides occurred. Black-white differences in rates of firearm homicide and suicide varied widely across states. Relative to white men, black men had between 9 and 57 additional firearm homicides per 100 000 per year, with black men in Missouri, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Pennsylvania having more than 40 additional firearm homicides per 100 000 per year. White men had between 2 fewer and 16 more firearm suicides per 100 000 per year, with the largest inequalities observed in southern and western states and the smallest in the District of Columbia and densely populated northeastern states.

Limitations

Some homicides and suicides may have been misclassified as deaths due to unintentional injury. Survey data on state household gun ownership were collected in 2004 and may have shifted during the past decade.

Conclusion

The large state-to-state variation in firearm homicide and suicide rates, as well as the racial inequalities in these numbers, highlights states where policies may be most beneficial in reducing homicide and suicide deaths and the racial disparities in their rates.

Primary Funding Source

McGill University and the National Institutes of Health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (C.A.R., S.H., J.S.K.).McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (C.A.R., S.H., J.S.K.).University of California, Davis, Davis, California (M.C.).McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (C.A.R., S.H., J.S.K.).

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29710093

Citation

Riddell, Corinne A., et al. "Comparison of Rates of Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide and Suicide in Black and White Non-Hispanic Men, By U.S. State." Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 168, no. 10, 2018, pp. 712-720.
Riddell CA, Harper S, Cerdá M, et al. Comparison of Rates of Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide and Suicide in Black and White Non-Hispanic Men, by U.S. State. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168(10):712-720.
Riddell, C. A., Harper, S., Cerdá, M., & Kaufman, J. S. (2018). Comparison of Rates of Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide and Suicide in Black and White Non-Hispanic Men, by U.S. State. Annals of Internal Medicine, 168(10), pp. 712-720. doi:10.7326/M17-2976.
Riddell CA, et al. Comparison of Rates of Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide and Suicide in Black and White Non-Hispanic Men, By U.S. State. Ann Intern Med. 2018 05 15;168(10):712-720. PubMed PMID: 29710093.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Comparison of Rates of Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide and Suicide in Black and White Non-Hispanic Men, by U.S. State. AU - Riddell,Corinne A, AU - Harper,Sam, AU - Cerdá,Magdalena, AU - Kaufman,Jay S, Y1 - 2018/04/24/ PY - 2018/5/2/pubmed PY - 2019/8/15/medline PY - 2018/5/1/entrez SP - 712 EP - 720 JF - Annals of internal medicine JO - Ann. Intern. Med. VL - 168 IS - 10 N2 - Background: The extent to which differences in homicide and suicide rates in black versus white men vary by U.S. state is unknown. Objective: To compare the rates of firearm and nonfirearm homicide and suicide in black and white non-Hispanic men by U.S. state and to examine whether these deaths are associated with state prevalence of gun ownership. Design: Surveillance study. Setting: 50 states and the District of Columbia, 2008 to 2016. Cause-of-death data were abstracted by using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's WONDER (Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) database. Participants: Non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white males, all ages. Measurements: Absolute rates of and rate differences in firearm and nonfirearm homicide and suicide in black and white men. Results: During the 9-year study period, 84 113 homicides and 251 772 suicides occurred. Black-white differences in rates of firearm homicide and suicide varied widely across states. Relative to white men, black men had between 9 and 57 additional firearm homicides per 100 000 per year, with black men in Missouri, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Pennsylvania having more than 40 additional firearm homicides per 100 000 per year. White men had between 2 fewer and 16 more firearm suicides per 100 000 per year, with the largest inequalities observed in southern and western states and the smallest in the District of Columbia and densely populated northeastern states. Limitations: Some homicides and suicides may have been misclassified as deaths due to unintentional injury. Survey data on state household gun ownership were collected in 2004 and may have shifted during the past decade. Conclusion: The large state-to-state variation in firearm homicide and suicide rates, as well as the racial inequalities in these numbers, highlights states where policies may be most beneficial in reducing homicide and suicide deaths and the racial disparities in their rates. Primary Funding Source: McGill University and the National Institutes of Health. SN - 1539-3704 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29710093/Comparison_of_Rates_of_Firearm_and_Nonfirearm_Homicide_and_Suicide_in_Black_and_White_Non_Hispanic_Men_by_U_S__State_ L2 - https://www.annals.org/article.aspx?doi=10.7326/M17-2976 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -