Risk factors for clinical ketosis and association with milk production and reproduction variables in dairy cows in a hot environment.Trop Anim Health Prod. 2018 Oct; 50(7):1611-1616.TA
The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the occurrence of clinical ketosis (CK; blood β-hydroxybutyrate > 3.0 mmol/L) and (2) to determine the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK; 1.2 ≤ β-hydroxybutyrate ≤ 2.9 mmol/L) and CK on reproductive performance and milk yield in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment. Cows (n = 345) were blood sampled from 6 to 15 days postpartum for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) determination with a hand-held meter. Cows calving in spring had 3.7 increased odds of having CK (20.7% incidence) than cows calving in summer (3.9% incidence) and autumn (9.4% incidence). Temperature-humidity index < 83 was associated with 1.6 times higher risk for CK compared with cows calving in warmer days. First-service conception rate was 12 and 16 percentage point higher (P < 0.05) in nonketotic cows compared with cows with SCK and CK, respectively. Actual 305-day milk yields for healthy, SCK, and CK cows were 9991 ± 1411, 10,123 ± 1442, and 10,386 ± 1435 kg (mean ± SD), respectively, with no difference (P > 0.05) between groups. In conclusion, this study documented that ketosis was seasonal with lower incidence of this metabolic disease during hot seasons and with increased ambient temperature at calving. Also, 305-day milk yield of Holstein cows was not related to blood BHB content early in lactation in this hot environment. However, elevated circulating BHB was negatively associated with conception rate at first service and fetal losses.