Development and evaluation of a novel drug delivery: Soluplus®/TPGS mixed micelles loaded with piperine in vitro and in vivo.Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2018 Sep; 44(9):1409-1416.DD
Although piperine can inhibit cells of tumors, the poor water solubility restricted its clinical application. This paper aimed to develop mixed micelles based on Soluplus® and D-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) to improve the aqueous solubility and anti-cancer effect.
Piperine-loaded mixed micelles were prepared using a thin-film hydration method, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. The cellular uptake of the micelles was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy in A549 lung cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells. In addition, cytotoxicity of the piperine mixed micelles was studied in A549 lung cancer cells and HepG2 liver cancer cells. Free piperine or piperine-loaded Soluplus®/TPGS mixed micelles were administered at an equivalent dose of piperine at 3.2 mg/kg via a single intravenous injection in the tail vain for the pharmacokinetic study in vivo.
The diameter of piperine-loaded Soluplus®/TPGS (4:1) mixed micelles was about 61.9 nm and the zeta potential -1.16 ± 1.06 mV with 90.9% of drug encapsulation efficiency and 4.67% of drug-loading efficiency. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies confirmed that piperine is encapsulated by the Soluplus®/TPGS. The release results in vitro showed that the piperine-loaded Soluplus®/TPGS mixed micelles presented sustained release behavior compared to the free piperine. The mixed micelles exhibited better antitumor efficacy compared to free piperine and physical mixture against in A549 and HepG2 cells by MTT assay. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that the AUC of piperine-loaded mixed micelles was 2.56 times higher than that of piperine and the MRT for piperine-loaded mixed micelles was 1.2-fold higher than piperine (p < .05).
The results of the study suggested that the piperine-loaded mixed micelles developed might be a potential nano-drug delivery system for cancer chemotherapy. These results demonstrated that piperine-loaded Soluplus®/TPGS mixed micelles are an effective strategy to deliver piperine for cancer therapy.