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Characterization of phenotypic variation and genome aberrations observed among Phytophthora ramorum isolates from diverse hosts.
BMC Genomics 2018; 19(1):320BG

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Accumulating evidence suggests that genome plasticity allows filamentous plant pathogens to adapt to changing environments. Recently, the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has been documented to undergo irreversible phenotypic alterations accompanied by chromosomal aberrations when infecting trunks of mature oak trees (genus Quercus). In contrast, genomes and phenotypes of the pathogen derived from the foliage of California bay (Umbellularia californica) are usually stable. We define this phenomenon as host-induced phenotypic diversification (HIPD). P. ramorum also causes a severe foliar blight in some ornamental plants such as Rhododendron spp. and Viburnum spp., and isolates from these hosts occasionally show phenotypes resembling those from oak trunks that carry chromosomal aberrations. The aim of this study was to investigate variations in phenotypes and genomes of P. ramorum isolates from non-oak hosts and substrates to determine whether HIPD changes may be equivalent to those among isolates from oaks.

RESULTS

We analyzed genomes of diverse non-oak isolates including those taken from foliage of Rhododendron and other ornamental plants, as well as from natural host species, soil, and water. Isolates recovered from artificially inoculated oak logs were also examined. We identified diverse chromosomal aberrations including copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) and aneuploidy in isolates from non-oak hosts. Most identified aberrations in non-oak hosts were also common among oak isolates; however, trisomy, a frequent type of chromosomal aberration in oak isolates was not observed in isolates from Rhododendron.

CONCLUSION

This work cross-examined phenotypic variation and chromosomal aberrations in P. ramorum isolates from oak and non-oak hosts and substrates. The results suggest that HIPD comparable to that occurring in oak hosts occurs in non-oak environments such as in Rhododendron leaves. Rhododendron leaves are more easily available than mature oak stems and thus can potentially serve as a model host for the investigation of HIPD, the newly described plant-pathogen interaction.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Washington State University Puyallup Research and Extension Center, Puyallup, Washington, 98371, USA.Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California, 95616, USA.Computational Genomics Lab, Structural Biology and Bioinformatics Division, CSIR Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, 700032, India.Computational Genomics Lab, Structural Biology and Bioinformatics Division, CSIR Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata, 700032, India.Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Davis, California, 95616, USA.Washington State University Puyallup Research and Extension Center, Puyallup, Washington, 98371, USA.Washington State University Puyallup Research and Extension Center, Puyallup, Washington, 98371, USA.Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California, 95616, USA.Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA.Crops Pathology and Genetics Research Unit, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Davis, California, 95616, USA. tkasuga@ucdavis.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29720102

Citation

Elliott, Marianne, et al. "Characterization of Phenotypic Variation and Genome Aberrations Observed Among Phytophthora Ramorum Isolates From Diverse Hosts." BMC Genomics, vol. 19, no. 1, 2018, p. 320.
Elliott M, Yuzon J, C MM, et al. Characterization of phenotypic variation and genome aberrations observed among Phytophthora ramorum isolates from diverse hosts. BMC Genomics. 2018;19(1):320.
Elliott, M., Yuzon, J., C, M. M., Tripathy, S., Bui, M., Chastagner, G. A., ... Kasuga, T. (2018). Characterization of phenotypic variation and genome aberrations observed among Phytophthora ramorum isolates from diverse hosts. BMC Genomics, 19(1), p. 320. doi:10.1186/s12864-018-4709-7.
Elliott M, et al. Characterization of Phenotypic Variation and Genome Aberrations Observed Among Phytophthora Ramorum Isolates From Diverse Hosts. BMC Genomics. 2018 May 2;19(1):320. PubMed PMID: 29720102.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Characterization of phenotypic variation and genome aberrations observed among Phytophthora ramorum isolates from diverse hosts. AU - Elliott,Marianne, AU - Yuzon,Jennifer, AU - C,Mathu Malar, AU - Tripathy,Sucheta, AU - Bui,Mai, AU - Chastagner,Gary A, AU - Coats,Katie, AU - Rizzo,David M, AU - Garbelotto,Matteo, AU - Kasuga,Takao, Y1 - 2018/05/02/ PY - 2018/01/10/received PY - 2018/04/22/accepted PY - 2018/5/4/entrez PY - 2018/5/4/pubmed PY - 2018/12/18/medline KW - Aneuploidy KW - Invasive pathogens KW - Loss of heterozygosity KW - Transposable elements SP - 320 EP - 320 JF - BMC genomics JO - BMC Genomics VL - 19 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that genome plasticity allows filamentous plant pathogens to adapt to changing environments. Recently, the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum has been documented to undergo irreversible phenotypic alterations accompanied by chromosomal aberrations when infecting trunks of mature oak trees (genus Quercus). In contrast, genomes and phenotypes of the pathogen derived from the foliage of California bay (Umbellularia californica) are usually stable. We define this phenomenon as host-induced phenotypic diversification (HIPD). P. ramorum also causes a severe foliar blight in some ornamental plants such as Rhododendron spp. and Viburnum spp., and isolates from these hosts occasionally show phenotypes resembling those from oak trunks that carry chromosomal aberrations. The aim of this study was to investigate variations in phenotypes and genomes of P. ramorum isolates from non-oak hosts and substrates to determine whether HIPD changes may be equivalent to those among isolates from oaks. RESULTS: We analyzed genomes of diverse non-oak isolates including those taken from foliage of Rhododendron and other ornamental plants, as well as from natural host species, soil, and water. Isolates recovered from artificially inoculated oak logs were also examined. We identified diverse chromosomal aberrations including copy neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) and aneuploidy in isolates from non-oak hosts. Most identified aberrations in non-oak hosts were also common among oak isolates; however, trisomy, a frequent type of chromosomal aberration in oak isolates was not observed in isolates from Rhododendron. CONCLUSION: This work cross-examined phenotypic variation and chromosomal aberrations in P. ramorum isolates from oak and non-oak hosts and substrates. The results suggest that HIPD comparable to that occurring in oak hosts occurs in non-oak environments such as in Rhododendron leaves. Rhododendron leaves are more easily available than mature oak stems and thus can potentially serve as a model host for the investigation of HIPD, the newly described plant-pathogen interaction. SN - 1471-2164 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29720102/Characterization_of_phenotypic_variation_and_genome_aberrations_observed_among_Phytophthora_ramorum_isolates_from_diverse_hosts L2 - https://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-018-4709-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -