[Diagnosis and treatment of ejaculatory duct obstruction: Current status and advances].Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2017 Jun; 23(6):483-487.ZN
Ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO) is one of the obstructive factors for 1－5% of all cases of male infertility and it is, however, surgically correctable. Congenital developmental abnormality is a most common cause of EDO. The clinical manifestations of EDO are varied, typically with the decline of four semen parameters. Transrectal ultrasonography is an important imaging method for the diagnosis of EDO and guidance in its surgery. MRI provides high-resolution images of the reproductive system as evidence. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct (TURED) is a classical operation, the application of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy has become a new trend of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of EDO, and the latest flexible vesiculovasoscopy (FVV) or vasoscopy techniques may further improve the diagnosis and treatment of EDO.