Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers.
Environ Res. 2018 08; 165:220-227.ER

Abstract

INTRODUCTION

After the implementation of smoke-free policies in indoor hospitality venues (including bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and pubs), smokers may have been displaced to their outdoor areas. We aimed to study smoking visibility and second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues.

METHODS

We collected information on signs of tobacco consumption on entrances and terraces of hospitality venues in 2016 in the city of Madrid, Spain. We further measured airborne nicotine concentrations and particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) in terraces with monitors by active sampling during 30 min. We calculated the medians and the interquartile ranges (IQR) of nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations, and fitted multivariate models to characterize their determinants.

RESULTS

We found 202 hospitality venues between May and September (summer), and 83 between October and December 2016 (fall) that were opened at the time of observation. We found signs of tobacco consumption on 78.2% of the outdoor main entrances and on 95.1% of outdoor terraces. We measured nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations in 92 outdoor terraces (out of the 123 terraces observed). Overall median nicotine concentration was 0.42 (IQR: 0.14-1.59) μg/m3, and overall PM2.5 concentration was 10.40 (IQR: 6.76-15.47) μg/m3 (statistically significantly higher than the background levels). Multivariable analyses showed that nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations increased when the terraces were completely closed, and when tobacco smell was noticed. Nicotine concentrations increased with the presence of cigarette butts, and when there were more than eight lit cigarettes at a time.

CONCLUSIONS

Outdoor hospitality venues are areas where non-smokers, both employees and patrons, continue to be exposed to second-hand smoke. These spaces should be further studied and considered in future tobacco control interventions.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Social and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: francisca.sureda@uah.es.Social and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Urban Health Collaborative, Drexel Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA.Tobacco Control Unit, Cancer Control and Prevention Programme, Institut Català d'Oncologia-ICO, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, Campus de Bellvitge, Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.Social and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Department of Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.Social and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Department of Geology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain.Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, USA.Social and Cardiovascular Epidemiology Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29727822

Citation

Sureda, Xisca, et al. "Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Outdoor Hospitality Venues: Smoking Visibility and Assessment of Airborne Markers." Environmental Research, vol. 165, 2018, pp. 220-227.
Sureda X, Bilal U, Fernández E, et al. Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers. Environ Res. 2018;165:220-227.
Sureda, X., Bilal, U., Fernández, E., Valiente, R., Escobar, F. J., Navas-Acien, A., & Franco, M. (2018). Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers. Environmental Research, 165, 220-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.04.024
Sureda X, et al. Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Outdoor Hospitality Venues: Smoking Visibility and Assessment of Airborne Markers. Environ Res. 2018;165:220-227. PubMed PMID: 29727822.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues: Smoking visibility and assessment of airborne markers. AU - Sureda,Xisca, AU - Bilal,Usama, AU - Fernández,Esteve, AU - Valiente,Roberto, AU - Escobar,Francisco J, AU - Navas-Acien,Ana, AU - Franco,Manuel, Y1 - 2018/05/01/ PY - 2018/03/16/received PY - 2018/04/19/revised PY - 2018/04/20/accepted PY - 2018/5/5/pubmed PY - 2019/9/7/medline PY - 2018/5/5/entrez KW - Airborne nicotine KW - Hospitality venues KW - PM2.5 KW - Second-hand smoke KW - Smoke-free policies SP - 220 EP - 227 JF - Environmental research JO - Environ Res VL - 165 N2 - INTRODUCTION: After the implementation of smoke-free policies in indoor hospitality venues (including bars, cafeterias, restaurants, and pubs), smokers may have been displaced to their outdoor areas. We aimed to study smoking visibility and second-hand smoke exposure in outdoor hospitality venues. METHODS: We collected information on signs of tobacco consumption on entrances and terraces of hospitality venues in 2016 in the city of Madrid, Spain. We further measured airborne nicotine concentrations and particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) in terraces with monitors by active sampling during 30 min. We calculated the medians and the interquartile ranges (IQR) of nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations, and fitted multivariate models to characterize their determinants. RESULTS: We found 202 hospitality venues between May and September (summer), and 83 between October and December 2016 (fall) that were opened at the time of observation. We found signs of tobacco consumption on 78.2% of the outdoor main entrances and on 95.1% of outdoor terraces. We measured nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations in 92 outdoor terraces (out of the 123 terraces observed). Overall median nicotine concentration was 0.42 (IQR: 0.14-1.59) μg/m3, and overall PM2.5 concentration was 10.40 (IQR: 6.76-15.47) μg/m3 (statistically significantly higher than the background levels). Multivariable analyses showed that nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations increased when the terraces were completely closed, and when tobacco smell was noticed. Nicotine concentrations increased with the presence of cigarette butts, and when there were more than eight lit cigarettes at a time. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor hospitality venues are areas where non-smokers, both employees and patrons, continue to be exposed to second-hand smoke. These spaces should be further studied and considered in future tobacco control interventions. SN - 1096-0953 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29727822/Second_hand_smoke_exposure_in_outdoor_hospitality_venues:_Smoking_visibility_and_assessment_of_airborne_markers_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0013-9351(18)30224-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -