The Spectrum of Histopathological Changes in the Renal Allograft - a 12 Months Protocol Biopsy Study.Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018 Apr 15; 6(4):606-612.OA
Renal transplantation became a routine and successful medical treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease in the last 30 years all over the world. Introduction of Luminex based Single Antigen Beads (SAB) and recent BANFF consensus of histopathological phenotypes of different forms of rejection enables more precise diagnosis and changes the therapeutic approach. The graft biopsies, protocol or cause, indicated, remain a golden diagnostic tool for clinical follow up of kidney transplant recipients (KTR).
The study aimed to analyse the histopathological changes in renal grafts 12 months after the surgery in KTR with satisfactory kidney function.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
A 12-month protocol biopsy study was performed in a cohort of 50 Kidney transplant recipients (42 from living and 8 from deceased donors). Usual work-up for suitable donors and recipients, standard surgical procedure, basic principles of peri and postoperative care and follow up were done in all KTR. Sequential quadruple immunosuppression including induction with Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or Interleukin-2R antagonist (IL-2R), and triple drug maintenance therapy with Calcineurin Inhibitors (CNI), Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) and Steroids were prescribed to all pts. Different forms of Glomerulonephritis (16), Hypertension (10), End Stage Renal Disease (13), Hereditary Nephropathies (6), Diabetes (3) and Vesicoureteral Reflux (2) were the underlying diseases. All biopsies were performed under ultrasound guidance. The 16 gauge needles with automated "gun" were used to take 2 cores of tissue. The samples were stained with HE, PAS, Trichrome Masson and Silver and reviewed by the same pathologist. A revised and uploaded BANFF 2013 classification in 6 categories (Cat) was used.
Out of 48 biopsies, 15 (31%) were considered as normal, 4 (8%), Borderline (BL-Cat 3), 5 (10%) as Interstitial Fibrosis/Tubular Atrophy (IF/TA-Cat 5), 5 (10%) were classified as non-immunological (Cat 6), 2 as a pure antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR-Cat 2) and T-cell Mediated Rejection (TCMR-Cat 4). The remaining 17 samples were classified as a "mixed" rejection: 7 (41%) ABMR + IF/TA, 5 (29%) ABMR + BL + IF/TA, 2 (11%) BL + IF/TA, 1 (5%) ABMR + BL, 1 (5%) ABMR + TCMR and 1 (5%) TCMR + IF/TA. The mean serum creatinine at the time of the biopsy was 126.7 ± 23.4 µmol/L, while GFR-MDRD 63.4 ± 20.7 ml/min, which means that the majority of the findings were subclinical. Among the non-immunological histological findings (Cat 6), 3 cases belonged to CNI toxicity, 1 to BK nephropathy and 1 to recurrence of the primary disease.
Our 12-month protocol biopsy study revealed the presence of different forms of mixed subclinical rejection. Use of recent BANFF classification and scoring system enables more precise diagnosis and subsequently different approach to the further treatment of the KTR. More correlative long-term studies including Anti HLA antibodies and Endothelial Cell Activation- Associated Transcripts (ENDAT) are needed.