Clinical Impact of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease.Contrib Nephrol. 2018; 195:81-91.CN
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) frequently occurs in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with heart failure and higher mortality. LVDD is observed in patients with early stages of CKD and is associated with cardiovascular events, in patients undergoing incident hemodialysis in the absence of systolic function. The pathogenesis of CKD includes abnormal ventricular filling in diastole and a higher LV filling pressure (LVFP) because of LV hypertrophy (LVH), in addition to myocardial interstitial fibrosis. Therefore, LV dysfunction tends to cause pulmonary congestion. In patients with CKD, the mechanism of LVDD is complicated and mainly involves LVH, which is a physiological response to pressure and volume overload. Other factors related to CKD, including LVH, neurohumoral alterations, inflammation, anemia, and mineral disorders, might cause the development of LVDD. Echocardiography is frequently used for noninvasive evaluation of diastolic function and for estimating LVFP. Echocardiographic quantification of LVFP is based on the E/e' ratio, where E is the early mitral flow velocity on transmitral Doppler and e' is the early mitral annulus velocity obtained from tissue Doppler. An E/e' ratio <8 is considered to be normal, whereas a ratio >15 is considered to mirror the increase in LVFP. The main strategy for treating LVDD is to minimize the large volume shift to control blood pressure and prevent myocardial interstitial fibrosis.