Quantitative and Discriminative Evaluation of Contents of Phenolic and Flavonoid and Antioxidant Competence for Chinese Honeys from Different Botanical Origins.Molecules. 2018 05 08; 23(5)M
Phenolics and flavonoids in honey are considered as the main phytonutrients which not only act as natural antioxidants, but can also be used as floral markers for honey identification. In this study, the chemical profiles of phenolics and flavonoids, antioxidant competences including total phenolic content, DPPH and ABTS assays and discrimination using chemometric analysis of various Chinese monofloral honeys from six botanical origins (acacia, Vitex, linden, rapeseed, Astragalus and Codonopsis) were examined. A reproducible and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of 38 phenolics, flavonoids and abscisic acid in honey. Formononetin, ononin, calycosin and calycosin-7-O-β-d-glucoside were identified and quantified in honeys for the first time. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed obvious differences among the honey samples in three-dimensional space accounting for 72.63% of the total variance. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) also revealed that the botanical origins of honey samples correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classification was performed to derive a model with high prediction ability. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was employed to identify markers specific to a particular honey type. The results indicated that Chinese honeys contained various and discriminative phenolics and flavonoids, as well as antioxidant competence from different botanical origins, which was an alternative approach to honey identification and nutritional evaluation.