The magnitude of obesity and metabolic syndrome among diabetic chronic kidney disease population: A nationwide study.PLoS One 2018; 13(5):e0196332Plos
Although the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among dialysis patients has been exceeding than general population, little is known regarding obesity and MetS in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to find the magnitude of obesity and MetS and their associations with impaired renal function among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.
A national survey of T2DM patients was collected in the Thai National Health Security Office database during 2014-5. The sampling frame was designated as distinct geographic regions throughout the country. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the study population. Anthropometry and 12-hour fasting blood samples were obtained by trained personnel. BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 was classified as obesity. MetS was defined as having elevated waist circumference (>90 and >80 cm in men and women, respectively) plus any two of the followings: triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL, HDL-C <40 in men or <50 mg/dL in women, blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg, and fasting blood sugar ≥100 mg/dL. CKD was defined as an impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 according to the CKD-EPI equation). Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between obesity and MetS with the presence of CKD.
A total of 32,616 diabetic patients were finally recruited from 997 hospitals. The mean age was 61.5±10.9 years with 67.5% women. Of the participants, 35.4% were CKD patients. The prevalence of obesity was 46.5% in CKD and 54.1% in non-CKD patients with T2DM (p<0.001). In contrast, the prevalence of MetS in CKD patients was higher than their non-CKD counterparts (71.3 vs 68.8%, p<0.001). Moreover, there was an association between the prevalence of MetS with CKD stage from 3a to 5 (70.1, 72.3, 73.4, and 72.7%, respectively, p trend = 0.02). MetS, but not obesity, had a significant association with CKD in T2DM patients after adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities [OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.06-1.22, p<0.001]. When stratified by each component of MetS, only high serum triglyceride and low HDL-C levels were increased in patients with CKD stage 4 and 5 compared with CKD stage 3 (p<0.001) and had a significant relationship with impaired renal function.
There were relatively high prevalences of both obesity and MetS in T2DM patients. A higher prevalence of MetS, but lower prevalence of obesity, was observed among diabetic CKD group compared with their non-CKD counterparts. MetS, as a surrogate of insulin resistance, appeared to be more important than obesity in the development of impaired renal function in diabetic population.