A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene compliance in a tertiary care center.Am J Infect Control. 2018 07; 46(7):775-780.AJ
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are a major threat to patient safety worldwide. HAIs are mainly transmitted via the hands of healthcare workers (HCWs), and HCW compliance with hand hygiene (HH) practices is reportedly low. Therefore, multimodal interventions are needed to develop effective HH improvement strategies. In this study, we assessed the effect of multimodal interventions on improvement of HH compliance.
This study was conducted in 2 intensive care units from August 2016 to October 2016. It encompassed 3 phases: pre-intervention (20 days), intervention (1 month), and post-intervention (20 days). A total of 53 HCWs, including physicians, nurses, and housekeeping staff, were included in the HH audit. The audit was analyzed by direct observation and by a completed knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire.
A total of 6350 HH opportunities were recorded; the results were 34.7%, 35%, and 69.7% for hand hygiene complete adherence rate (HHCAR), hand hygiene partial adherence rate (HHPAR), and hand hygiene adherence rate (HHAR), respectively. The HHCAR in the pre-intervention and post-intervention phases were 3% and 70.1%, respectively. HHCAR was highest among nurses (3.6% in the pre-intervention phase and 80.7% in the post-intervention phase). Other findings were that senior physicians had better HH compliance than junior physicians; in the pre-intervention phase, the HHCAR was better in the evening (4.8%); in the post-intervention phase, the HHCAR was better in the morning (72.1%); women had a higher HHCAR than men; and in the pre-intervention phase, good compliance was seen with Moments 2 and 3 of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Five Moments for Hand Hygiene, whereas in the post-intervention phase, good compliance was seen with Moments 3, 4, and 5. Questionnaire-based data were also analyzed to assess KAP of HH. We found that only 55%-82% of HCWs were aware of the WHO's Five Moments for Hand Hygiene. In the post-intervention phase, we observed a significant improvement in KAP of the study group.
Significant improvement in HH compliance can be achieved through a systematic, multidimensional intervention involving all types of HCWs.