Caging Nb2 O5 Nanowires in PECVD-Derived Graphene Capsules toward Bendable Sodium-Ion Hybrid Supercapacitors.Adv Mater 2018; 30(26):e1800963AM
Sodium-ion hybrid supercapacitors (Na-HSCs) by virtue of synergizing the merits of batteries and supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention for high-energy and high-power energy-storage applications. Orthorhombic Nb2 O5 (T-Nb2 O5) has recently been recognized as a promising anode material for Na-HSCs due to its typical pseudocapacitive feature, but it suffers from intrinsically low electrical conductivity. Reasonably high electrochemical performance of T-Nb2 O5 -based electrodes could merely be gained to date when sufficient carbon content was introduced. In addition, flexible Na-HSC devices have scarcely been demonstrated by far. Herein, an in situ encapsulation strategy is devised to directly grow ultrathin graphene shells over T-Nb2 O5 nanowires (denoted as Gr-Nb2 O5 composites) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, targeting a highly conductive anode material for Na-HSCs. The few-layered graphene capsules with ample topological defects would enable facile electron and Na+ ion transport, guaranteeing rapid pseudocapacitive processes at the Nb2 O5 /electrolyte interface. The Na-HSC full-cell comprising a Gr-Nb2 O5 anode and an activated carbon cathode delivers high energy/power densities (112.9 Wh kg-1 /80.1 W kg-1 and 62.2 Wh kg-1 /5330 W kg-1), outperforming those of recently reported Na-HSC counterparts. Proof-of-concept Na-HSC devices with favorable mechanical robustness manifest stable electrochemical performances under different bending conditions and after various bending-release cycles.