Source identification and spatial distribution of arsenic and heavy metals in agricultural soil around Hunan industrial estate by positive matrix factorization model, principle components analysis and geo statistical analysis.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Sep 15; 159:354-362.EE
Characterizing the distribution and defining potential sources of arsenic and heavy metals are the basic preconditions for reducing the contamination of heavy metals and metalloids. 71 topsoil samples and 61 subsoil samples were collected by grid method to measure the concentration of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr). Principle components analysis (PCA), GIS-based geo-statistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) were applied. The results showed that the mean concentrations were 9.59 mg kg-1, 51.28 mg kg-1, 202.07 mg kg-1, 81.32 mg kg-1 and 771.22 mg kg-1 for Cd, As, Pb, Cu and Zn, respectively, higher than the guideline values of Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils; while the concentrations of Ni and Cr were very close to recommended value (50 mg kg-1, 200 mg kg-1), and some site were higher than guideline values. The soil was polluted by As and heavy metals in different degree, which had harmful impact on human health. The results from principle components analysis methods extracted three components, namely industrial sources (Cd, Zn and Pb), agricultural sources (As and Cu) and nature sources (Cr and Ni). GIS-based geo-statistical combined with local conditions further apportioned the sources of these trace elements. To better identify pollution sources of As and heavy metals in soil, the PMF was applied. The results of PMF demonstrated that the enrichment of Zn, Cd and Pb were attributed to industrial activities and their contribution was 24.9%; As was closely related to agricultural activities and its contribution was 19.1%; Cr, a part of Cu and Ni were related to subsoil and their contribution was 30.1%; Cu and Pb came from industry and traffic emission and their contribution was 25.9%.