Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 4 attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced insulin resistance via suppression of inflammation and ER stress through HO-1 expression in adipocytes.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018 07 07; 502(1):129-136.BB
Although Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 4 (FNDC4) has been reported to be involved in the modulation of inflammation in macrophages, its effects on inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FNDC4 on hyperlipidemia-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in adipocytes via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-mediated pathway. Hyperlipidemia-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB), inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and MCP-1 were markedly mitigated by FNDC4. Furthermore, FNDC4 treatment attenuated impaired insulin signaling in palmitate-treated differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and in subcutaneous adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. FNDC4 administration ameliorated glucose intolerance and reduced HFD-induced body weight gain in mice. However, FNDC4 treatment did not affect calorie intake. Additionally, treatment with FNDC4 attenuated hyperlipidemia-induced phosphorylation or expression of ER stress markers such as IRE-1, eIF2α, and CHOP in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in subcutaneous adipose tissue of mice. FNDC4 treatment stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and in subcutaneous adipose tissue of mice. siRNA-mediated suppression of AMPK and HO-1 abrogated the suppressive effects of FNDC4 on palmitate-induced ER stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance. In conclusion, our results show that FNDC4 ameliorates insulin resistance via AMPK/HO-1-mediated suppression of inflammation and ER stress, indicating that FNDC4 may be a novel therapeutic agent for treating insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.