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Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos - A Pilot study.
Sci Rep. 2018 05 22; 8(1):8018.SR

Abstract

Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most commonly identified cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Asia. The WHO recommended test is anti-JEV IgM-antibody-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). However, data suggest this has low positive predictive value, with false positives related to other Flavivirus infections and vaccination. JEV RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum is highly specific, but is rarely positive; 0-25% of patients that fulfil the WHO definition of JE (clinical Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and JEV MAC-ELISA positive). Testing other body fluids by JEV RT-qPCR may improve the diagnosis. As a pilot study thirty patients admitted to Mahosot Hospital 2014-2017, recruited to the South-East-Asia-Encephalitis study, were tested by JEV MAC-ELISA and two JEV real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays (NS2A and NS3). Eleven (36.7%) were JEV MAC-ELISA positive. Available CSF and serum samples of these patients were JEV RT-qPCR negative but 2 (7%) had JEV RNA detected in their throat swabs. JEV RNA was confirmed by re-testing, and sequencing of RT-qPCR products. As the first apparent report of JEV RNA detection in human throat samples, the provides new perspectives on human JEV infection, potentially informing improving JEV detection. We suggest that testing patients' throat swabs for JEV RNA is performed, in combination with molecular and serological CSF and serum investigations, on a larger scale to investigate the epidemiology of the presence of JEV in human throats. Throat swabs are an easy and non-invasive tool that could be rolled out to a wider population to improve knowledge of JEV molecular epidemiology.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR. t.bharucha@doctors.org.uk. Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK. t.bharucha@doctors.org.uk.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR.UMR "Unité des Virus Emergents" (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ - IRD 190 - Inserm 1207 - IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France.Institut Pasteur, Biology of Infection Unit, Inserm, U1117, Paris, France. Paris Descartes University, Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital, Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Paris, France.Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR. Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.UMR "Unité des Virus Emergents" (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ - IRD 190 - Inserm 1207 - IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France.Lao-Oxford-Mahosot Hospital-Wellcome Trust Research Unit (LOMWRU), Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Lao PDR. Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK. UMR "Unité des Virus Emergents" (UVE: Aix-Marseille Univ - IRD 190 - Inserm 1207 - IHU Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29789537

Citation

Bharucha, Tehmina, et al. "Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos - a Pilot Study." Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, 2018, p. 8018.
Bharucha T, Sengvilaipaseuth O, Seephonelee M, et al. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos - A Pilot study. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):8018.
Bharucha, T., Sengvilaipaseuth, O., Seephonelee, M., Vongsouvath, M., Vongsouvath, M., Rattanavong, S., Piorkowski, G., Lecuit, M., Gorman, C., Pommier, J. D., Newton, P. N., de Lamballerie, X., & Dubot-Pérès, A. (2018). Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos - A Pilot study. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 8018. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26333-4
Bharucha T, et al. Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos - a Pilot Study. Sci Rep. 2018 05 22;8(1):8018. PubMed PMID: 29789537.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus RNA in Human Throat Samples in Laos - A Pilot study. AU - Bharucha,Tehmina, AU - Sengvilaipaseuth,Onanong, AU - Seephonelee,Malee, AU - Vongsouvath,Malavanh, AU - Vongsouvath,Manivanh, AU - Rattanavong,Sayaphet, AU - Piorkowski,Géraldine, AU - Lecuit,Marc, AU - Gorman,Christopher, AU - Pommier,Jean-David, AU - Newton,Paul N, AU - de Lamballerie,Xavier, AU - Dubot-Pérès,Audrey, Y1 - 2018/05/22/ PY - 2017/12/07/received PY - 2018/05/10/accepted PY - 2018/5/24/entrez PY - 2018/5/24/pubmed PY - 2019/10/23/medline SP - 8018 EP - 8018 JF - Scientific reports JO - Sci Rep VL - 8 IS - 1 N2 - Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most commonly identified cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Asia. The WHO recommended test is anti-JEV IgM-antibody-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). However, data suggest this has low positive predictive value, with false positives related to other Flavivirus infections and vaccination. JEV RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum is highly specific, but is rarely positive; 0-25% of patients that fulfil the WHO definition of JE (clinical Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and JEV MAC-ELISA positive). Testing other body fluids by JEV RT-qPCR may improve the diagnosis. As a pilot study thirty patients admitted to Mahosot Hospital 2014-2017, recruited to the South-East-Asia-Encephalitis study, were tested by JEV MAC-ELISA and two JEV real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays (NS2A and NS3). Eleven (36.7%) were JEV MAC-ELISA positive. Available CSF and serum samples of these patients were JEV RT-qPCR negative but 2 (7%) had JEV RNA detected in their throat swabs. JEV RNA was confirmed by re-testing, and sequencing of RT-qPCR products. As the first apparent report of JEV RNA detection in human throat samples, the provides new perspectives on human JEV infection, potentially informing improving JEV detection. We suggest that testing patients' throat swabs for JEV RNA is performed, in combination with molecular and serological CSF and serum investigations, on a larger scale to investigate the epidemiology of the presence of JEV in human throats. Throat swabs are an easy and non-invasive tool that could be rolled out to a wider population to improve knowledge of JEV molecular epidemiology. SN - 2045-2322 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29789537/Detection_of_Japanese_Encephalitis_Virus_RNA_in_Human_Throat_Samples_in_Laos___A_Pilot_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26333-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -