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Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0196278.Plos

Abstract

Lake Okeechobee, FL, USA, has been subjected to intensifying cyanobacterial blooms that can spread to the adjacent St. Lucie River and Estuary via natural and anthropogenically-induced flooding events. In July 2016, a large, toxic cyanobacterial bloom occurred in Lake Okeechobee and throughout the St. Lucie River and Estuary, leading Florida to declare a state of emergency. This study reports on measurements and nutrient amendment experiments performed in this freshwater-estuarine ecosystem (salinity 0-25 PSU) during and after the bloom. In July, all sites along the bloom exhibited dissolved inorganic nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios < 6, while Microcystis dominated (> 95%) phytoplankton inventories from the lake to the central part of the estuary. Chlorophyll a and microcystin concentrations peaked (100 and 34 μg L-1, respectively) within Lake Okeechobee and decreased eastwards. Metagenomic analyses indicated that genes associated with the production of microcystin (mcyE) and the algal neurotoxin saxitoxin (sxtA) originated from Microcystis and multiple diazotrophic genera, respectively. There were highly significant correlations between levels of total nitrogen, microcystin, and microcystin synthesis gene abundance across all surveyed sites (p < 0.001), suggesting high levels of nitrogen supported the production of microcystin during this event. Consistent with this, experiments performed with low salinity water from the St. Lucie River during the event indicated that algal biomass was nitrogen-limited. In the fall, densities of Microcystis and concentrations of microcystin were significantly lower, green algae co-dominated with cyanobacteria, and multiple algal groups displayed nitrogen-limitation. These results indicate that monitoring and regulatory strategies in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River and Estuary should consider managing loads of nitrogen to control future algal and microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY, United States of America.Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, United States of America.Cooperative Institute for Great Lakes Research (CIGLR), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.USGS, Orlando, FL, United States of America.School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY, United States of America.Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY, United States of America.School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, NY, United States of America.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29791446

Citation

Kramer, Benjamin J., et al. "Nitrogen Limitation, Toxin Synthesis Potential, and Toxicity of Cyanobacterial Populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, During the 2016 State of Emergency Event." PloS One, vol. 13, no. 5, 2018, pp. e0196278.
Kramer BJ, Davis TW, Meyer KA, et al. Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event. PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0196278.
Kramer, B. J., Davis, T. W., Meyer, K. A., Rosen, B. H., Goleski, J. A., Dick, G. J., Oh, G., & Gobler, C. J. (2018). Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event. PloS One, 13(5), e0196278. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196278
Kramer BJ, et al. Nitrogen Limitation, Toxin Synthesis Potential, and Toxicity of Cyanobacterial Populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, During the 2016 State of Emergency Event. PLoS One. 2018;13(5):e0196278. PubMed PMID: 29791446.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event. AU - Kramer,Benjamin J, AU - Davis,Timothy W, AU - Meyer,Kevin A, AU - Rosen,Barry H, AU - Goleski,Jennifer A, AU - Dick,Gregory J, AU - Oh,Genesok, AU - Gobler,Christopher J, Y1 - 2018/05/23/ PY - 2018/01/12/received PY - 2018/04/10/accepted PY - 2018/5/24/entrez PY - 2018/5/24/pubmed PY - 2018/8/7/medline SP - e0196278 EP - e0196278 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 13 IS - 5 N2 - Lake Okeechobee, FL, USA, has been subjected to intensifying cyanobacterial blooms that can spread to the adjacent St. Lucie River and Estuary via natural and anthropogenically-induced flooding events. In July 2016, a large, toxic cyanobacterial bloom occurred in Lake Okeechobee and throughout the St. Lucie River and Estuary, leading Florida to declare a state of emergency. This study reports on measurements and nutrient amendment experiments performed in this freshwater-estuarine ecosystem (salinity 0-25 PSU) during and after the bloom. In July, all sites along the bloom exhibited dissolved inorganic nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios < 6, while Microcystis dominated (> 95%) phytoplankton inventories from the lake to the central part of the estuary. Chlorophyll a and microcystin concentrations peaked (100 and 34 μg L-1, respectively) within Lake Okeechobee and decreased eastwards. Metagenomic analyses indicated that genes associated with the production of microcystin (mcyE) and the algal neurotoxin saxitoxin (sxtA) originated from Microcystis and multiple diazotrophic genera, respectively. There were highly significant correlations between levels of total nitrogen, microcystin, and microcystin synthesis gene abundance across all surveyed sites (p < 0.001), suggesting high levels of nitrogen supported the production of microcystin during this event. Consistent with this, experiments performed with low salinity water from the St. Lucie River during the event indicated that algal biomass was nitrogen-limited. In the fall, densities of Microcystis and concentrations of microcystin were significantly lower, green algae co-dominated with cyanobacteria, and multiple algal groups displayed nitrogen-limitation. These results indicate that monitoring and regulatory strategies in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River and Estuary should consider managing loads of nitrogen to control future algal and microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29791446/Nitrogen_limitation_toxin_synthesis_potential_and_toxicity_of_cyanobacterial_populations_in_Lake_Okeechobee_and_the_St__Lucie_River_Estuary_Florida_during_the_2016_state_of_emergency_event_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196278 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -