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Correlation among olfactory function, motors' symptoms, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease.
J Neurol. 2018 Aug; 265(8):1764-1771.JN

Abstract

Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually considered as a movement disorder, it is strongly associated with non-motor symptoms (NMS), including smell and taste dysfunctions, cognitive impairment, apathy, fatigue, and autonomic dysregulation. Olfactory deficit is considered the most common NMS in PD preceding the motor symptoms for years. The aim of this study was to investigate olfactory function, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with PD in comparison with healthy controls, and subsequently to analyse the correlations between these NMS and motor symptoms severity in subjects with PD. One hundred and forty-seven participants were enrolled (96 PD patients, mean age in years 67.5, SD 7.2; 51 healthy controls; mean age 65.1, SD 11.8). Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks test (odor detection threshold, discrimination and identification). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to assess cognitive impairment. Apathy was examined by the self-report version of Starkstein Apathy Scale and fatigue was evaluated with the Parkinson's Disease Fatigue Scale. PD patients showed severe impairment in odor detection threshold, discrimination, and identification compared to healthy controls. Moreover, in PD patients, apathy and fatigue scores were significantly increased, while MoCA scores were decreased in comparison with controls. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that both apathy and Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) were associated with odor identification, discrimination and Threshold-Discrimination-Identification (TDI) score. In conclusion, our results reported changes in apathy and motor disability as significant predictors in alterations of odor identification, discrimination and TDI score. Furthermore, these data suggest that olfactory dysfunction might progress in tight relation with motor impairment UPDRS but also with non-motor symptoms such as apathy.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. cmasala@unica.it.Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. paosol29@yahoo.it. Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. paosol29@yahoo.it.Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Physiology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.Interdisciplinary Center Smell and Taste, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.Interdisciplinary Center Smell and Taste, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.Interdisciplinary Center Smell and Taste, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29804147

Citation

Masala, Carla, et al. "Correlation Among Olfactory Function, Motors' Symptoms, Cognitive Impairment, Apathy, and Fatigue in Patients With Parkinson's Disease." Journal of Neurology, vol. 265, no. 8, 2018, pp. 1764-1771.
Masala C, Solla P, Liscia A, et al. Correlation among olfactory function, motors' symptoms, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2018;265(8):1764-1771.
Masala, C., Solla, P., Liscia, A., Defazio, G., Saba, L., Cannas, A., Cavazzana, A., Hummel, T., & Haehner, A. (2018). Correlation among olfactory function, motors' symptoms, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, 265(8), 1764-1771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-8913-9
Masala C, et al. Correlation Among Olfactory Function, Motors' Symptoms, Cognitive Impairment, Apathy, and Fatigue in Patients With Parkinson's Disease. J Neurol. 2018;265(8):1764-1771. PubMed PMID: 29804147.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Correlation among olfactory function, motors' symptoms, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with Parkinson's disease. AU - Masala,Carla, AU - Solla,Paolo, AU - Liscia,A, AU - Defazio,G, AU - Saba,L, AU - Cannas,A, AU - Cavazzana,A, AU - Hummel,T, AU - Haehner,A, Y1 - 2018/05/26/ PY - 2018/03/22/received PY - 2018/05/18/accepted PY - 2018/05/18/revised PY - 2018/5/29/pubmed PY - 2018/10/31/medline PY - 2018/5/28/entrez KW - Apathy KW - Cognitive ability KW - Fatigue KW - Olfaction KW - Parkinson’s disease SP - 1764 EP - 1771 JF - Journal of neurology JO - J Neurol VL - 265 IS - 8 N2 - Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually considered as a movement disorder, it is strongly associated with non-motor symptoms (NMS), including smell and taste dysfunctions, cognitive impairment, apathy, fatigue, and autonomic dysregulation. Olfactory deficit is considered the most common NMS in PD preceding the motor symptoms for years. The aim of this study was to investigate olfactory function, cognitive impairment, apathy, and fatigue in patients with PD in comparison with healthy controls, and subsequently to analyse the correlations between these NMS and motor symptoms severity in subjects with PD. One hundred and forty-seven participants were enrolled (96 PD patients, mean age in years 67.5, SD 7.2; 51 healthy controls; mean age 65.1, SD 11.8). Olfactory function was evaluated using the Sniffin' Sticks test (odor detection threshold, discrimination and identification). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was used to assess cognitive impairment. Apathy was examined by the self-report version of Starkstein Apathy Scale and fatigue was evaluated with the Parkinson's Disease Fatigue Scale. PD patients showed severe impairment in odor detection threshold, discrimination, and identification compared to healthy controls. Moreover, in PD patients, apathy and fatigue scores were significantly increased, while MoCA scores were decreased in comparison with controls. Multivariate linear regression analyses showed that both apathy and Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) were associated with odor identification, discrimination and Threshold-Discrimination-Identification (TDI) score. In conclusion, our results reported changes in apathy and motor disability as significant predictors in alterations of odor identification, discrimination and TDI score. Furthermore, these data suggest that olfactory dysfunction might progress in tight relation with motor impairment UPDRS but also with non-motor symptoms such as apathy. SN - 1432-1459 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29804147/Correlation_among_olfactory_function_motors'_symptoms_cognitive_impairment_apathy_and_fatigue_in_patients_with_Parkinson's_disease_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-018-8913-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -