Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of endothelial, epithelial, and fibroblast cells induces a receptor for C3b.J Immunol. 1985 Apr; 134(4):2673-8.JI
We recently demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) induces a receptor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells for complement component C3b (C3bR). We assigned this receptor function to HSV 1 viral glycoprotein C (gC) based on several observations: tunicamycin, which prevents glycosylation and expression of N-linked glycoproteins on the surface of infected cells, markedly reduced expression of the C3bR; monoclonal antibodies to HSV 1 gC blocked detection of the C3bR, whereas monoclonal antibodies to other HSV 1 glycoproteins (gB, gD, gE) had no effect; and the MP mutant of HSV 1, which fails to express gC, did not induce C3bR. We now report that HSV 1 induces C3bR on a wide variety of cell types including bovine thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery endothelial cells, human embryonic lung and embryonic foreskin fibroblasts, and human embryonic kidney cells. To date, all cells studied that are permissive to HSV 1 express C3bR, although the pattern of rosetting of C3b-coated erythrocytes varies among the cell strains examined. We also demonstrate that C3bR expression is not a general response of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to injury, because three other viruses (adenovirus 7, measles, and mumps) do not induce C3bR after infection of these cells. Previously we had shown that among herpes simplex viruses, a variety of HSV 1 strains induce C3bR, whereas HSV 2 strains do not. We now demonstrate that other herpes family viruses (CMV and VZV) do not express C3bR. Therefore, C3bR expression appears to be unique for HSV 1 and occurs on a wide variety of cells permissive to this virus.