Activation of persulfate by homogeneous and heterogeneous iron catalyst to degrade chlortetracycline in aqueous solution.Chemosphere. 2018 Sep; 207:543-551.C
This study investigates the removal of chlortetracycline (CTC) antibiotic using sulfate radical-based oxidation process. Sodium persulfate (PS) was used as a source to generate sulfate radicals by homogeneous (Fe2+) and heterogeneous (zero valent iron, ZVI) iron as a catalyst. Increased EDTA concentration was used to break the CTC-Fe metal complexes during CTC estimation. The influence of various parameters, such as PS concentration, iron (Fe2+ and ZVI) concentration, PS/iron molar ratio, and pH were studied and optimum conditions were reported. CTC removal was increased with increasing concentration of PS and iron at an equal molar ratio of PS/Fe2+ and PS/ZVI processes. PS/Fe2+ and PS/ZVI oxidation processes at 1:2 (500 μM PS and 1000 μM) molar ratio showed 76% and 94% of 1 μM CTC removal in 2 h. Further increased molar ratio 1:2 onwards, PS/Fe2+ process showed a slight increase in CTC degradation whereas in PS/ZVI process showed similar degradation to 1:2 (PS/Fe) ratio at constant PS 500 μM concentration. Slower activation of persulfate which indirectly indicates the slower generation of sulfate radicals in PS/ZVI process showed higher degradation efficiency of CTC. The detected transformation products and their estrogenicity results stated that sulfate radicals seem to be efficient in forming stable and non-toxic end products.