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The impact of steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains on phytate hydrolysis and the distribution, speciation and bio-accessibility of iron and zinc elements.
Food Chem. 2018 Oct 30; 264:367-376.FC

Abstract

Chelation of iron and zinc in wheat as phytates lowers their bio-accessibility. Steeping and germination (15 °C, 120 h) lowered phytate content from 0.96% to only 0.81% of initial dry matter. A multifactorial experiment in which (steeped/germinated) wheat was subjected to different time (2-24 h), temperature (20-80 °C) and pH (2.0-8.0) conditions showed that hydrothermal processing of germinated (15 °C, 120 h) wheat at 50 °C and pH 3.8 for 24 h reduced phytate content by 95%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging showed that it indeed abolished chelation of iron to phytate. It also proved that iron was oxidized during steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing. It was further shown that zinc and iron bio-accessibility were respectively 3 and 5% in wheat and 27 and 37% in hydrothermally processed wheat. Thus, hydrothermal processing of (germinated) wheat paves the way for increasing elemental bio-accessibility in whole grain-based products.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: elien.lemmens1@kuleuven.be.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: niels.debrier@kuleuven.be.Photon Science, Deutsches-Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: kathryn.spiers@desy.de.CSIRO Earth Sciences and Resource Engineering, Kensington, Australia. Electronic address: Chris.Ryan@csiro.au.Photon Science, Deutsches-Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: jan.garrevoet@desy.de.Photon Science, Deutsches-Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: gerald.falkenberg@desy.de.Division of Mechatronics, Biostatistics and Sensors (MeBioS), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: peter.goos@kuleuven.be.Division of Soil and Water Management, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: erik.smolders@kuleuven.be.Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Biochemistry and Leuven Food Science and Nutrition Research Centre (LFoRCe), KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address: jan.delcour@kuleuven.be.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29853389

Citation

Lemmens, Elien, et al. "The Impact of Steeping, Germination and Hydrothermal Processing of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Grains On Phytate Hydrolysis and the Distribution, Speciation and Bio-accessibility of Iron and Zinc Elements." Food Chemistry, vol. 264, 2018, pp. 367-376.
Lemmens E, De Brier N, Spiers KM, et al. The impact of steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains on phytate hydrolysis and the distribution, speciation and bio-accessibility of iron and zinc elements. Food Chem. 2018;264:367-376.
Lemmens, E., De Brier, N., Spiers, K. M., Ryan, C., Garrevoet, J., Falkenberg, G., Goos, P., Smolders, E., & Delcour, J. A. (2018). The impact of steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains on phytate hydrolysis and the distribution, speciation and bio-accessibility of iron and zinc elements. Food Chemistry, 264, 367-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.125
Lemmens E, et al. The Impact of Steeping, Germination and Hydrothermal Processing of Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Grains On Phytate Hydrolysis and the Distribution, Speciation and Bio-accessibility of Iron and Zinc Elements. Food Chem. 2018 Oct 30;264:367-376. PubMed PMID: 29853389.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains on phytate hydrolysis and the distribution, speciation and bio-accessibility of iron and zinc elements. AU - Lemmens,Elien, AU - De Brier,Niels, AU - Spiers,Kathryn M, AU - Ryan,Chris, AU - Garrevoet,Jan, AU - Falkenberg,Gerald, AU - Goos,Peter, AU - Smolders,Erik, AU - Delcour,Jan A, Y1 - 2018/04/30/ PY - 2017/12/21/received PY - 2018/04/26/revised PY - 2018/04/27/accepted PY - 2018/6/2/entrez PY - 2018/6/2/pubmed PY - 2018/10/3/medline KW - Bio-accessibility KW - Chemical speciation KW - Hydrothermal processing KW - Minerals KW - Phytase KW - Phytate KW - Steeping and germination KW - Wheat SP - 367 EP - 376 JF - Food chemistry JO - Food Chem VL - 264 N2 - Chelation of iron and zinc in wheat as phytates lowers their bio-accessibility. Steeping and germination (15 °C, 120 h) lowered phytate content from 0.96% to only 0.81% of initial dry matter. A multifactorial experiment in which (steeped/germinated) wheat was subjected to different time (2-24 h), temperature (20-80 °C) and pH (2.0-8.0) conditions showed that hydrothermal processing of germinated (15 °C, 120 h) wheat at 50 °C and pH 3.8 for 24 h reduced phytate content by 95%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging showed that it indeed abolished chelation of iron to phytate. It also proved that iron was oxidized during steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing. It was further shown that zinc and iron bio-accessibility were respectively 3 and 5% in wheat and 27 and 37% in hydrothermally processed wheat. Thus, hydrothermal processing of (germinated) wheat paves the way for increasing elemental bio-accessibility in whole grain-based products. SN - 1873-7072 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29853389/The_impact_of_steeping_germination_and_hydrothermal_processing_of_wheat__Triticum_aestivum_L___grains_on_phytate_hydrolysis_and_the_distribution_speciation_and_bio_accessibility_of_iron_and_zinc_elements_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0308-8146(18)30773-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -