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Carbon emissions from South-East Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes.
Glob Chang Biol 2018; 24(10):4598-4613GC

Abstract

Carbon emissions from drained peatlands converted to agriculture in South-East Asia (i.e., Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo) are globally significant and increasing. Here, we map the growth of South-East Asian peatland agriculture and estimate CO2 emissions due to peat drainage in relation to official land-use plans with a focus on the reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+)-related Indonesian moratorium on granting new concession licences for industrial agriculture and logging. We find that, prior to 2010, 35% of South-East Asian peatlands had been converted to agriculture, principally by smallholder farmers (15% of original peat extent) and industrial oil palm plantations (14%). These conversions resulted in 1.46-6.43 GtCO2 of emissions between 1990 and 2010. This legacy of historical clearances on deep-peat areas will contribute 51% (4.43-11.45 GtCO2 ) of projected future peatland CO2 emissions over the period 2010-2130. In Indonesia, which hosts most of the region's peatland and where concession maps are publicly available, 70% of peatland conversion to agriculture occurred outside of known concessions for industrial plantation development, with smallholders accounting for 60% and industrial oil palm accounting for 34%. Of the remaining Indonesian peat swamp forest (PSF), 45% is not protected, and its conversion would amount to CO2 emissions equivalent to 0.7%-2.3% (5.14-14.93 Gt) of global fossil fuel and cement emissions released between 1990 and 2010. Of the peatland extent included in the moratorium, 48% was no longer forested, and of the PSF included, 40%-48% is likely to be affected by drainage impacts from agricultural areas and will emit CO2 over time. We suggest that recent legislation and policy in Indonesia could provide a means of meaningful emission reductions if focused on revised land-use planning, PSF conservation both inside and outside agricultural concessions, and the development of agricultural practices based on rehabilitating peatland hydrological function.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore. ConservationLinks, Singapore. Rimba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.College of Science and Engineering, Center for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science, James Cook University, Cairns, Qld, Australia.School of Geography, Geology & the Environment, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.Rimba, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Department of Biological Sciences, Sunway University, Selangor, Malaysia.Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, Singapore.Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore. School of Animal Biology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29855120

Citation

Wijedasa, Lahiru S., et al. "Carbon Emissions From South-East Asian Peatlands Will Increase Despite Emission-reduction Schemes." Global Change Biology, vol. 24, no. 10, 2018, pp. 4598-4613.
Wijedasa LS, Sloan S, Page SE, et al. Carbon emissions from South-East Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes. Glob Chang Biol. 2018;24(10):4598-4613.
Wijedasa, L. S., Sloan, S., Page, S. E., Clements, G. R., Lupascu, M., & Evans, T. A. (2018). Carbon emissions from South-East Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes. Global Change Biology, 24(10), pp. 4598-4613. doi:10.1111/gcb.14340.
Wijedasa LS, et al. Carbon Emissions From South-East Asian Peatlands Will Increase Despite Emission-reduction Schemes. Glob Chang Biol. 2018;24(10):4598-4613. PubMed PMID: 29855120.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Carbon emissions from South-East Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes. AU - Wijedasa,Lahiru S, AU - Sloan,Sean, AU - Page,Susan E, AU - Clements,Gopalasamy R, AU - Lupascu,Massimo, AU - Evans,Theodore A, Y1 - 2018/07/17/ PY - 2018/02/27/received PY - 2018/02/27/revised PY - 2018/04/24/accepted PY - 2018/6/2/pubmed PY - 2019/1/18/medline PY - 2018/6/2/entrez KW - CO2 emissions KW - Peat swamp forest KW - REDD+ KW - South-East Asia SP - 4598 EP - 4613 JF - Global change biology JO - Glob Chang Biol VL - 24 IS - 10 N2 - Carbon emissions from drained peatlands converted to agriculture in South-East Asia (i.e., Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo) are globally significant and increasing. Here, we map the growth of South-East Asian peatland agriculture and estimate CO2 emissions due to peat drainage in relation to official land-use plans with a focus on the reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD+)-related Indonesian moratorium on granting new concession licences for industrial agriculture and logging. We find that, prior to 2010, 35% of South-East Asian peatlands had been converted to agriculture, principally by smallholder farmers (15% of original peat extent) and industrial oil palm plantations (14%). These conversions resulted in 1.46-6.43 GtCO2 of emissions between 1990 and 2010. This legacy of historical clearances on deep-peat areas will contribute 51% (4.43-11.45 GtCO2 ) of projected future peatland CO2 emissions over the period 2010-2130. In Indonesia, which hosts most of the region's peatland and where concession maps are publicly available, 70% of peatland conversion to agriculture occurred outside of known concessions for industrial plantation development, with smallholders accounting for 60% and industrial oil palm accounting for 34%. Of the remaining Indonesian peat swamp forest (PSF), 45% is not protected, and its conversion would amount to CO2 emissions equivalent to 0.7%-2.3% (5.14-14.93 Gt) of global fossil fuel and cement emissions released between 1990 and 2010. Of the peatland extent included in the moratorium, 48% was no longer forested, and of the PSF included, 40%-48% is likely to be affected by drainage impacts from agricultural areas and will emit CO2 over time. We suggest that recent legislation and policy in Indonesia could provide a means of meaningful emission reductions if focused on revised land-use planning, PSF conservation both inside and outside agricultural concessions, and the development of agricultural practices based on rehabilitating peatland hydrological function. SN - 1365-2486 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29855120/Carbon_emissions_from_South_East_Asian_peatlands_will_increase_despite_emission_reduction_schemes_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14340 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -