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Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes.
Toxicon. 2018 Aug; 150:188-194.T

Abstract

This report describes a series of ten cases of fulminant pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following envenomation by the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in south eastern Queensland, Australia. All cases were presented for veterinary treatment during 2011-2018 at a specialist veterinary emergency centre. Each case received prompt antivenom treatment and supportive care. Pulmonary haemorrhage was diagnosed based on clinical examination; overt haemoptysis; thoracic radiographic demonstration of a diffuse alveolar pattern; and, the presence of venom induced consumptive coagulopathy. The median elapsed time from hospital admission to onset of haemoptysis was 2 h (range 0-18 h). In 80% (8/10) of cases endotracheal intubation was required, whilst 20% (2/10) were successfully treated with mask oxygen supplementation alone, and 40% (4/10) received mechanical ventilation; but only 25% (1/4) of these survived to hospital discharge. Fresh frozen canine plasma was administered to 70% (7/10) of cases and 43% (3/7) of these survived. Of the total number of cases presented for treatment, 30% (3/10) survived to hospital discharge, 60% (6/10) were euthanised due to poor prognosis and 10% (1/10) died from cardiac arrest. Initial serum brown snake venom antigen levels were retrospectively measured from frozen serum samples by venom specific sandwich ELISA in two dogs at 154 ng/mL (survived) and 3607 ng/mL (euthanised); no free venom was detected post-antivenom. Dogs that survived were discharged from hospital without apparent complications. Pulmonary haemorrhage is an uncommon event following envenomation by P. textilis in dogs and has not been described in similarly envenomed humans. This case series highlights the potential for fulminant and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following eastern brown snake envenomation.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland 4119, Australia.Australian Venom Research Unit, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne, 3010, Australia. Electronic address: andrew.padula@unimelb.edu.au.Pet Intensive Care Unit (Pet ICU), Underwood, Queensland 4119, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29857087

Citation

Leong, Oriana S., et al. "Severe Acute Pulmonary Haemorrhage and Haemoptysis in Ten Dogs Following Eastern Brown Snake (Pseudonaja Textilis) Envenomation: Clinical Signs, Treatment and Outcomes." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 150, 2018, pp. 188-194.
Leong OS, Padula AM, Leister E. Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes. Toxicon. 2018;150:188-194.
Leong, O. S., Padula, A. M., & Leister, E. (2018). Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 150, 188-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.05.020
Leong OS, Padula AM, Leister E. Severe Acute Pulmonary Haemorrhage and Haemoptysis in Ten Dogs Following Eastern Brown Snake (Pseudonaja Textilis) Envenomation: Clinical Signs, Treatment and Outcomes. Toxicon. 2018;150:188-194. PubMed PMID: 29857087.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Severe acute pulmonary haemorrhage and haemoptysis in ten dogs following eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) envenomation: Clinical signs, treatment and outcomes. AU - Leong,Oriana S, AU - Padula,Andrew M, AU - Leister,Ellie, Y1 - 2018/05/29/ PY - 2018/03/16/received PY - 2018/05/15/revised PY - 2018/05/28/accepted PY - 2018/6/2/pubmed PY - 2018/11/27/medline PY - 2018/6/2/entrez KW - Brown snake KW - Dog KW - Immunoassay KW - Pulmonary haemorrhage KW - Snake antivenom KW - Snake venom KW - Snakebite SP - 188 EP - 194 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 150 N2 - This report describes a series of ten cases of fulminant pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following envenomation by the eastern brown snake (Pseudonaja textilis) in south eastern Queensland, Australia. All cases were presented for veterinary treatment during 2011-2018 at a specialist veterinary emergency centre. Each case received prompt antivenom treatment and supportive care. Pulmonary haemorrhage was diagnosed based on clinical examination; overt haemoptysis; thoracic radiographic demonstration of a diffuse alveolar pattern; and, the presence of venom induced consumptive coagulopathy. The median elapsed time from hospital admission to onset of haemoptysis was 2 h (range 0-18 h). In 80% (8/10) of cases endotracheal intubation was required, whilst 20% (2/10) were successfully treated with mask oxygen supplementation alone, and 40% (4/10) received mechanical ventilation; but only 25% (1/4) of these survived to hospital discharge. Fresh frozen canine plasma was administered to 70% (7/10) of cases and 43% (3/7) of these survived. Of the total number of cases presented for treatment, 30% (3/10) survived to hospital discharge, 60% (6/10) were euthanised due to poor prognosis and 10% (1/10) died from cardiac arrest. Initial serum brown snake venom antigen levels were retrospectively measured from frozen serum samples by venom specific sandwich ELISA in two dogs at 154 ng/mL (survived) and 3607 ng/mL (euthanised); no free venom was detected post-antivenom. Dogs that survived were discharged from hospital without apparent complications. Pulmonary haemorrhage is an uncommon event following envenomation by P. textilis in dogs and has not been described in similarly envenomed humans. This case series highlights the potential for fulminant and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage in dogs following eastern brown snake envenomation. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29857087/Severe_acute_pulmonary_haemorrhage_and_haemoptysis_in_ten_dogs_following_eastern_brown_snake__Pseudonaja_textilis__envenomation:_Clinical_signs_treatment_and_outcomes_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(18)30209-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -