Impact of Vitamin D on the Cardiovascular System in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Dialysis Patients.Nutrients. 2018 Jun 01; 10(6)N
In patients suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD), the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is much more common than in the general population. The role of vitamin D deficiency had been underestimated until a significant association was found between vitamin D therapy and survival benefit in haemodialysis patients. Vitamin D deficiency is present even in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. The results of experimental studies have revealed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and impairment of cardiac contractile function, higher cardiac mass and increased myocardial collagen content. Experimental models propose that intermediate end points for the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and higher risk of cardiovascular disease comprise diminished left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), enhanced left ventricular diastolic function, and decreased frequency of heart failure. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated an association between the use of active vitamin D therapy in patients on dialysis and with CKD and improved survival. However, there are also many studies indicating important adverse effects of such treatment. Therefore, large randomized trials are required to analyze whether supplementation of vitamin D may affect outcomes and whether it is safe to be used in CKD patients.