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Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016.
J Nutr. 2018 09 01; 148(9S):1557S-1566S.JN

Abstract

Background

The US Dietary Guidelines will expand in 2020 to include infants and toddlers. Understanding current dietary intakes is critical to inform policy.

Objective

The purpose of this analysis was to examine the usual total nutrient intakes from diet and supplements among US children.

Methods

The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016 is a national cross-sectional study of children aged <48 mo (n = 3235): younger infants (birth to 5.9 mo), older infants (6-11.9 mo), toddlers (12-23.9 mo), younger preschoolers (24-36.9 mo), and older preschoolers (36-47.9 mo) based on the use of a 24-h dietary recall. A second 24-h recall was collected from a representative subsample (n = 799). Energy, total nutrient intake distributions, and compliance with Dietary Reference Intakes were estimated with the use of the National Cancer Institute method.

Results

Dietary supplement use was 15-23% among infants and toddlers and 35-45% among preschoolers. Dietary intakes of infants were adequate, with mean intakes exceeding Adequate Intake for all nutrients except vitamins D and E. Iron intakes fell below the Estimated Average Requirement for older infants (18%). We found that 31-33% of children aged 12-47.9 mo had low percentage of energy from total fat, and >60% of children aged 24-47.9 mo exceeded the saturated fat guidelines. The likelihood of nutrient inadequacy for many nutrients was higher for toddlers: 3.2% and 2.5% greater than the Adequate Intake for fiber and potassium and 76% and 52% less than the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamins D and E, respectively. These patterns continued through older ages. Intakes exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of sodium, retinol, and zinc across most age groups.

Conclusions

Dietary intakes of US infants are largely nutritionally adequate; concern exists over iron intakes in those aged 6-11.9 mo. For toddlers and preschoolers, high intake of sodium and low intakes of potassium, fiber, and vitamin D and, for preschoolers, excess saturated fat are of concern. Excess retinol, zinc, and folic acid was noted across most ages, especially among supplement users.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.Nestlé Nutrition, Florham Park, NJ.RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC.Nestlé Research Center, Vers-Chez-les-Blanc, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29878255

Citation

Bailey, Regan L., et al. "Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings From the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 148, no. 9S, 2018, 1557S-1566S.
Bailey RL, Catellier DJ, Jun S, et al. Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. J Nutr. 2018;148(9S):1557S-1566S.
Bailey, R. L., Catellier, D. J., Jun, S., Dwyer, J. T., Jacquier, E. F., Anater, A. S., & Eldridge, A. L. (2018). Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. The Journal of Nutrition, 148(9S), 1557S-1566S. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy042
Bailey RL, et al. Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings From the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. J Nutr. 2018 09 1;148(9S):1557S-1566S. PubMed PMID: 29878255.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Total Usual Nutrient Intakes of US Children (Under 48 Months): Findings from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2016. AU - Bailey,Regan L, AU - Catellier,Diane J, AU - Jun,Shinyoung, AU - Dwyer,Johanna T, AU - Jacquier,Emma F, AU - Anater,Andrea S, AU - Eldridge,Alison L, PY - 2017/08/03/received PY - 2018/02/13/accepted PY - 2018/6/8/pubmed PY - 2019/7/4/medline PY - 2018/6/8/entrez SP - 1557S EP - 1566S JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J Nutr VL - 148 IS - 9S N2 - Background: The US Dietary Guidelines will expand in 2020 to include infants and toddlers. Understanding current dietary intakes is critical to inform policy. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to examine the usual total nutrient intakes from diet and supplements among US children. Methods: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016 is a national cross-sectional study of children aged <48 mo (n = 3235): younger infants (birth to 5.9 mo), older infants (6-11.9 mo), toddlers (12-23.9 mo), younger preschoolers (24-36.9 mo), and older preschoolers (36-47.9 mo) based on the use of a 24-h dietary recall. A second 24-h recall was collected from a representative subsample (n = 799). Energy, total nutrient intake distributions, and compliance with Dietary Reference Intakes were estimated with the use of the National Cancer Institute method. Results: Dietary supplement use was 15-23% among infants and toddlers and 35-45% among preschoolers. Dietary intakes of infants were adequate, with mean intakes exceeding Adequate Intake for all nutrients except vitamins D and E. Iron intakes fell below the Estimated Average Requirement for older infants (18%). We found that 31-33% of children aged 12-47.9 mo had low percentage of energy from total fat, and >60% of children aged 24-47.9 mo exceeded the saturated fat guidelines. The likelihood of nutrient inadequacy for many nutrients was higher for toddlers: 3.2% and 2.5% greater than the Adequate Intake for fiber and potassium and 76% and 52% less than the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamins D and E, respectively. These patterns continued through older ages. Intakes exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of sodium, retinol, and zinc across most age groups. Conclusions: Dietary intakes of US infants are largely nutritionally adequate; concern exists over iron intakes in those aged 6-11.9 mo. For toddlers and preschoolers, high intake of sodium and low intakes of potassium, fiber, and vitamin D and, for preschoolers, excess saturated fat are of concern. Excess retinol, zinc, and folic acid was noted across most ages, especially among supplement users. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29878255/Total_Usual_Nutrient_Intakes_of_US_Children__Under_48_Months_:_Findings_from_the_Feeding_Infants_and_Toddlers_Study__FITS__2016_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/nxy042 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -