Simultaneous Assessment of Transporter-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions Using a Probe Drug Cocktail in Cynomolgus Monkey.Drug Metab Dispos. 2018 Aug; 46(8):1179-1189.DM
We aim to establish an in vivo preclinical model to enable simultaneous assessment of inhibition potential of an investigational drug on clinically relevant drug transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and organic anion transporter (OAT)3. Pharmacokinetics of substrate cocktail consisting of pitavastatin (OATP1B substrate), rosuvastatin (OATP1B/BCRP/OAT3), sulfasalazine (BCRP), and talinolol (P-gp) were obtained in cynomolgus monkey-alone or in combination with transporter inhibitors. Single-dose rifampicin (30 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) increased the plasma exposure of all four drugs, with a marked effect on pitavastatin and rosuvastatin [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio ∼21-39]. Elacridar, BCRP/P-gp inhibitor, increased the AUC of sulfasalazine, talinolol, as well as rosuvastatin and pitavastatin. An OAT1/3 inhibitor (probenecid) significantly (P < 0.05) impacted the renal clearance of rosuvastatin (∼8-fold). In vitro, rifampicin (10 µM) inhibited uptake of pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, and sulfasalazine by monkey and human primary hepatocytes. Transport studies using membrane vesicles suggested that all probe substrates, except talinolol, are transported by cynoBCRP, whereas talinolol is a cynoP-gp substrate. Elacridar and rifampicin inhibited both cynoBCRP and cynoP-gp in vitro, indicating potential for in vivo intestinal efflux inhibition. In conclusion, a probe substrate cocktail was validated to simultaneously evaluate perpetrator impact on multiple clinically relevant transporters using the cynomolgus monkey. The results support the use of the cynomolgus monkey as a model that could enable drug-drug interaction risk assessment, before advancing a new molecular entity into clinical development, as well as providing mechanistic insights on transporter-mediated interactions.